attached in a file.
I will be grateful for some help here.
The phase is the random variable of interest. X and Y are functions of the phase.
The basic idea is that if A is a random variable and f a function of A, then
E(f(A))=∫f(a)dF(a), where F(a) = P(A≤a), the distribution function for A.
Separate names with a comma.