Hello, I was browsing a set of number theory problems, and I came across this one: "Prove that the equation a^{2}+b^{2}=c^{2}+3 has infinitely many solutions in integers." Now, I found out that c must be odd and a and b must be even. So, for some integer n, c=2n+1, so c^{2}+3=4n^{2}+4n+4=4[n^{2}+n+1]. If n is of the form k^{2}-1, then the triple of integers{2n,2[itex]\sqrt{n+1}[/itex],2n+1]} satisfies the equation. Since there are infinitely such n, the equation holds for integers infinitely often. I thought this was cool. Mathguy
Looks like the same approach could be used for many constants. So the question becomes, for what k does a^{2}+b^{2}=c^{2}+k have infinitely many solutions?
That is cool!!! Nice find!! A no-brainer as follow-up question is of course: are these all the solutions?? I don't know the answer myself, but it's interesting to find out.
That is an interesting question. The case when k=0 has infinitely many solutions of which are all of the form [itex]a=d(p^2-q^2)[/itex], [itex]b=2dpq[/itex], [itex]c=d(p^2+q^2)[/itex] for integer p,q and an arbitrary constant d. The case k=3 makes the right hand side the square of 2n+2 when c=2n+1, and hence the case k=0 implies the case k=3. Applying the case when k=0 that I specified above, I obtain that [itex]a=d(p^2-q^2)[/itex], [itex]b=2dpq[/itex], [itex]c=d(p^2+q^2)-1[/itex], which are, I believe, all of the solutions. However, note that if a particular selection of p and q yields c as even, then this will not hold. In particular, we need the above specified condition that [itex]n=k^2-1[/itex], so [itex]c=2k^2-1[/itex].
Haha, Thanks! I'm inclined to say that these are all the solutions, but I do not know. By the way, I could write the solutions in terms of k rather than n to make it neater. (i.e., if k is an integer, then, {2k^{2}-2,2k,2k^{2}-1} is an integer solution to the equation)
Choose any t > 0. a = k + 2t + 1 (so a and k have opposite parity) b = (a^{2} - k - 1)/2 c = b + 1 c^{2} - b^{2} = 2b+1 = a^{2} - k