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Can't write calculated resulted to file in C++

  1. Sep 20, 2010 #1
    1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

    Dear physics forum,

    I'm start learning C++ and I'm trying to program a space transform function for linearized convection-diffusion problem using Code:block
    Everything was fine until I wrote calculated result into a file. When I run the program, some error message popped up which related to "memory could not be read" and std::eek:stream::sentry::sentry() in debug windows

    Code (Text):

    #include <iostream>
    #include <fstream> // for working with file
    #include <cmath>
    #include <iomanip>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <math.h>
    #include <cstdlib> // for exit function

    using namespace std;

    // Function for calculating exponental part of transfer function //
    double  expo(double dx, double celerity, double time, double dif)
        double result;
        result = -(dx - celerity * time );
        result = exp ( pow (result, 2.0) / ( 4.0 * dif * time ));
        return (result);

    // Main program
    int main ()
        // Creat a file to store the result
        ofstream outdata;
        outdata.open ("Result.txt", ios::out);

       if( !outdata ) {                                     // file couldn't be opened
          cerr << "Error: file could not be opened" << endl;

        outdata << "OK??" << endl;

        // Declare variables
        double  PI = 3.14159,
                u  = 1.5,
                D  = 50.0,
                diffu = 0.0,
                t0 = 0.0,
                deltat = 1.0,
                deltax = 0.5;

        // Introduce number of interval
        int     n  = 50;

        // Create an array to store results of transfer function
        double  transfer[50] = {0.0};

        // Approximate c by u
        c = 5.0/3.0 * u;

        cout << "Time" << setw (21) << "Transfer function" << endl;

        // Loop for calculating transfer function
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            t = t0 + deltat * i;
            transfer[i] = deltax / ( 2.0 * sqrt( PI * D * t ));         // Calculate convection part
            diffu = expo(deltax, c, t, D);                              // Calculate diffusion part
            transfer[i] = transfer [i] * diffu;                         // Put 2 parts together

            cout << setw(2) << t << setw(18) << transfer[i] << endl;    // Print out results

        for (int i = 1; i <= n; ++i) {
            outdata << transfer[i] << endl;


        // Terminate the program
        return 0;


    2. Relevant equations

    T(t,deltax) = [tex]\frac{deltax}{2\sqrt{\Pi*D*t^{3}}}*e^{-\frac{(deltax - c*t)^2}{4*D*t}[/tex]

    Plz help me with this. Thank you very much for your time


    1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data

    2. Relevant equations

    3. The attempt at a solution
  2. jcsd
  3. Sep 20, 2010 #2

    D H

    User Avatar
    Staff Emeritus
    Science Advisor

    Arrays are index from 0 in C and C++. The valid indices into the array "transfer" are 0 to 49. You are setting and then accessing elements 1 to 50.
  4. Sep 20, 2010 #3


    Staff: Mentor

    Your for loop runs from i = 1 to 50, and your transfer array is declared to have 50 members.

    In C and C++, arrays are zero-based, which means that the elements of your array are transfer[0], transfer[1], ..., transfer[49]. Your for loop is attempting to write to transfer[50], which is outside your array. I believe that's what is causing your problem.

    Change your loop as follows
    Code (Text):
    for(i = 0; i < n; i++)
       // body of loop
  5. Sep 20, 2010 #4
    You guys are absolutely right! This solves my problem now !

    Thank you again !

  6. Sep 20, 2010 #5

    D H

    User Avatar
    Staff Emeritus
    Science Advisor

    Even better, use
    Code (Text):
    for(i = 0; i < n; ++i)
       // body of loop
    In this case use of post-increment versus pre-increment doesn't really matter. However, as soon as you start using iterators, the post-increment operator can be quite expensive compared to the pre-increment operator. In C it is fairly standard to use post-increment by default, deferring the use of pre-increment as a signal that the programmer is being tricky. In C++ it is the other way around.
  7. Sep 21, 2010 #6
    Could you also tell me which one is better:

    pow (a, 3) or a * a * a


    Have a nice day every1

  8. Sep 22, 2010 #7
    well of course a*a*a will be faster since it does not have to deal with the general case in pow(). Micro optimizing like this is rarely needed and when it does it is a last move optimization that is carefully profiled. If your you really want to optimize your code heres a few things to try to accomplish:

    write better algorithms,
    reduce dynamic memory (when possible),
    improve access to readable/writable data,

    Trying to micro optimize your code at such a level will actually cause a decrease in code readability, which is a bigger con than having a minimal optimization
  9. Sep 22, 2010 #8

    D H

    User Avatar
    Staff Emeritus
    Science Advisor

    Unfortunately, it is a*a*a. C and C++ lack an exponentiation operator and the pow() function is a very poor substitute for it. With most compilers, pow(a,3) is equivalent to exp(3*log(a)). This is one of the two key issues that makes some Fortran programmers think that C and C++ are terrible languages for numerical programming.
  10. Sep 23, 2010 #9
    Thank you guys for your info.

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