I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

In Section 10.2 Cooperstein writes the following, essentially about external direct sums ... ...

Cooperstein asserts that properties (a) and (b) above "characterize the space ##V## as the direct sum of the spaces ##V_1, \ ... \ ... \ , V_n##"

Can someone please explain how/why properties (a) and (b) above characterize the space ##V## as the direct sum of the spaces ##V_1, \ ... \ ... \ , V_n##?

Help will be appreciated ...

Peter

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# I Characterization of External Direct Sum - Cooperstein

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