# Create a Sine Wave Circuit Design for Inverting Voltage | Step-by-Step Guide

• Engineering
• felipe_damascena
In summary, the task is to design an electronic circuit that takes a sine wave as input and outputs a different wave. The input sine wave has an amplitude that goes from +5V to -5V. The output wave has different behaviors depending on the input voltage, with Vo being constant at 3V when Vi goes from 0V to 5V, Vo going from 3V to -2V when Vi goes from 5V to 0V, Vo being constant at -2V when Vi goes from 0V to -5V, and Vo going from -2V to 3V when Vi goes from -5V to 0V. The circuit should only use resistors, capacitors,
felipe_damascena
Summary: I want to design an electronic circuit that takes an sine wave as input and output a different wave

I want to design an electronic circuit that takes a sine wave as input(Vi) and it outputs a different wave (Vo). Vi goes from +5V to -5V

Vo is constant with the value of three, when Vi goes from 0V to 5V,
Vo goes from 3V to -2V, when Vi goes from 5V to 0V
Vo is constant with the value of -2, when Vi goes from 0V to -5V
V0 goes from -2V to 3V, when Vi goes from -5V to 0V

How can I do this?

<< Mentor Note -- thread moved to the schoolwork forums from the EE forum, so no schoolwork Template is shown >>

Last edited by a moderator:
Hi there
welcome to PF
felipe_damascena said:
Summary: I want to design an electronic circuit that takes an sine wave as input and output a different wave
How can I do this?
Well it would help if you were specific ... what sort of output wave ?
square?
sawtooth?
triangular ?
maybe even a sine wave that is out of phase with the input one ?when you have decided the answer to that, then do some google searching

eg ... sine in square out
google sine to square wave converter circuit

come back and let us know what you find for what you want to do, post links or a circuit you find
and we here can give recommendations as to if it will do what you want cheers
Dave

Why do you want to design the circuit?

Is the frequency of the sinewave variable or specified?
There are many solutions to the problem. What technology do you want to use?

The reason I want to design this circuit is for college, I am learning about electrics and electronic circuits. The teacher did not say what we should use to solve it, but i believe we should only use resistors, capacitor, inductors, diode and transistors. I have attached a file with the input wave and the output wave. I have studyed about clippers and clampers circuits up until now and I have no idea how can I make this circuit

#### Attachments

• circuito_2.pdf
85.4 KB · Views: 197
felipe_damascena said:
The reason I want to design this circuit is for college, I am learning about electrics and electronic circuits. The teacher did not say what we should use to solve it,
Welcome to the PF, Felipe. Schoolwork questions go in the Homework Help section of the PF, so I've moved your thread for you.

FYI, your written description of the circuit doesn't match the waveform you posted. Assuming that the waveform is correct (because a circuit that does what you described would be very complicated!), then this is a straight forward application of a clamping circuit, which you say you have studied.

"How can I do this" isn't a great question for homework help. I could just tell you the answer, but then what would you have learned. I presume that your instructor has shown you some examples of clamping circuits. Compare those to this problem.

What are your thoughts about an approach to this solution? What specifically is confusing you?

Finally, here's a hint: The circuit behaves very differently for large input amplitudes (above or below zero) than it does for smaller input amplitudes, so there is probably some dramatic change in the circuit when the input reaches the value where the circuit's behavior changes. Resistors and voltage/current sources don't change dramatically (we call these behaviors constant or linear), you will need to have some components that will change their I-V behavior significantly at some point to implement this function (we call these non-linear).

felipe_damascena and berkeman
What specially confuses me is how the wave changes his behavior when the input wave has 0V, because a diode can make the voltage constant, but only for values bigger or smaller than a certain voltage. In this output wave, when the input wave goes from 0V to 5V, the output wave has one behavior and when the input goes from 5V to 0V, the behavior changes and I do not know what kind of element can make this happen.

felipe_damascena said:
... and I do not know what kind of element can make this happen.
Clues: Voltage comparator, electronic switch, transmission gate, differentiator.

A sinewave has 4 quadrants. You have 4 rules.
Make a table of the rule to apply in each quadrant; 0, 1, 2, 3.

You will need two “bits” of digital information to select the quadrant.
Is the sinewave positive or negative?
Is the sinewave rising or falling?
How can you determine the quadrant from that information?

How can you design circuits to generate those two bits.

Baluncore said:
Clues: Voltage comparator, electronic switch, transmission gate, differentiator.

A sinewave has 4 quadrants. You have 4 rules.
Make a table of the rule to apply in each quadrant; 0, 1, 2, 3.

You will need two “bits” of digital information to select the quadrant.
Is the sinewave positive or negative?
Is the sinewave rising or falling?
How can you determine the quadrant from that information?

How can you design circuits to generate those two bits.
... level shift, clamp, ...

If precision is not required, like post #4 attachment ...
I have found a circuit that requires;
1 resistor.
2 capacitors.
3 diodes.
2 voltage sources.
That might not be the minimum possible.

I was finally able to find an answer too, this is my circuit in the falstad. What do you guys think?

Well done. Your circuit appears to meet the requirements using AC coupling and voltage clamps.

I note that your diode current is limited only by i = c * dv/dt of the input frequency.

## 1. How do I create a sine wave circuit design for inverting voltage?

To create a sine wave circuit design for inverting voltage, you will need to use an operational amplifier (op-amp) and a feedback circuit. The op-amp will serve as the main component for inverting the input voltage, while the feedback circuit will ensure that the output signal is a precise sine wave.

## 2. What components do I need for this circuit design?

In addition to an op-amp and feedback circuit, you will also need resistors, capacitors, and a power supply. The values of these components will vary depending on the desired frequency and amplitude of your sine wave.

## 3. Can I use this circuit for any voltage input?

Yes, this circuit design can be used for any voltage input. However, the output voltage will depend on the gain of the op-amp and the feedback circuit, so it is important to choose appropriate values for these components to achieve the desired output voltage.

## 4. Are there any safety precautions I should take when building this circuit?

Yes, when working with electronic circuits, it is always important to take necessary safety precautions. This includes wearing appropriate protective gear, such as safety goggles, and being mindful of potential electric shocks. It is also important to double-check all connections and ensure that the circuit is properly grounded.

## 5. Can I modify this circuit for other waveforms?

While this circuit is specifically designed for inverting voltage and producing a sine wave, it can be modified for other waveforms by adjusting the values of the components. For example, to create a square wave, you would need to use different values for the resistors and capacitors in the feedback circuit.

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