Circuit Definition and 320 Discussions

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation.
Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect low-current circuits or individual household appliance, up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. The generic function of a circuit breaker, or fuse, as an automatic means of removing power from a faulty system is often abbreviated as OCPD (Over Current Protection Device).

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  1. G

    Power generated by this current source

    Figure: My attempt at a solution: 1st kirchoff law: $$J=2I_0+I_0=6\, \textrm{A}$$ $$V_1+8=10\rightarrow \boxed{V_1=2}$$ $$V_1=6-V_S\rightarrow \boxed{V_S=-4\, \textrm{V}}$$ We are looking for ##P## generated in ##J## $$V_J=V_1-2\cdot J=2-2\cdot 6=-10\, \textrm{V}$$...
  2. G

    Thévenin and Norton circuits Exercise

    Figure: My attempt at a solution: a) ##\boxed{V_{TH}}## Current source equations ##\rightarrow \boxed{2=I_2-I_1}## Control variable equations ##\rightarrow V_1=4I_2\rightarrow \boxed{0=4I_2-V_1}## Super Mesh ##\rightarrow -0,5V_1+2I_1+I_2(4+8)-8I_3=0\rghtarrow...
  3. L

    Maximum charge on the plates of a capacitor

    What I have done: The electromotive force due to Faraday's Law is: ##\mathcal{E}=-\frac{d\phi(\vec{B})}{dt}=\frac{d}{dt}(Ba^2)=a^2\frac{dB}{dt}=-10^{-4}V.## In the circuit, going around the loop in a clockwise fashion: ##\oint_{\Gamma}\vec{E}\cdot d\vec{l}=-\frac{d\phi(\vec{B})}{dt}\Rightarrow...
  4. L

    Time for current in solenoid to be 10% less than the steady state current

    I set up the equation ##V-iR-L\frac{di}{dt}=0##, with ##i(0)## and by solving it I got ##i(t)=\frac{V}{R}(1-e^{-\frac{R}{L}t})##. Then, since the steady state current is ##i_s=\frac{V}{R}## I imposed the condition ##i(t_1)=\frac{9}{10}\frac{V}{R}\Leftrightarrow...
  5. G

    Potential difference of an electric circuit

    The figure is: I have the solution to this problem: We have two distinct branches $$V_a-V_b=\overbrace{(V_a-V_c)}^{\textrm{INI}-\textrm{FIN}}+\overbrace{(V_c-V_b)}^{\textrm{FIN}-\textrm{INI}}$$ They have different intensities: ##3\, \textrm{mA}## and ##2\, \textrm{mA}## ##V_A-V_C\rightarrow##...
  6. L

    Find the time for the current to fall to 35mA in this simple RL circuit

    What I have done: (1) ##I(0)=\frac{V}{R}=\frac{1.5}{25}A=0.06 A.## (2) By setting ##I(t*)=0.06(1-e^{-(35/0.4)t*})=35 mA## we get ##t*\approx 0.01 s## What I have done seems correct to me, but the result for part (2) should be different. I would be grateful if someone could point out to me...
  7. link223

    Engineering Question about a circuit to be solved with Norton's theorem

    Hello guys, I am new here. I was wondering whether I could get some help about the highlighted part. What I don't understand is why we are able to ignore the 5-ohms resistor when we have short circuited terminals a-b. Thanks in advance.
  8. altruan23

    Engineering Opamp adder circuit: Where does the "-" come from?

    So i used KCL and both currents are flowing into the node, and then leaving together to go to the resistor R3. So my eq can be seen in the picture. I was looking in a book and they had a minus infront of the parantheses. Is the current flowing from R3 into the node??
  9. bluesteels

    [Ohm's law] Why does the answer key use the time after 5 seconds?

    This the answer key:: im confused because it say "how much energy has been dissipated after 5s". So shouldn't you be looking at the ground after 5 sec. but apparently the solution look at it before 5 sec, am I missing anything, can someone explain
  10. S

    Finding potential at a point in capacitor

    I tried solving the part (a), and got I =1.82 A for the current value using Kirchoff's law. Next, I want to use Ohm's law to calculate the voltage at point a. Va = IR In this equation, will resistance R correspond to 4.4Ω or 8.8Ω? How do you determine which resistance to use when solving this...
  11. S

    Using Kirchhoff's Rule - Theory question

    In my lecture, it was explained that Kirchhoff's Rule is used when circuits are too "complicated" to simplify by combining resistances in series and parallel. I do not understand in which cases I can simplify circuits by combining resistances, and on which cases I can only use Kirchoff's Rule...
  12. S

    DC circuit finding Req

    The answer sheet assumes that the resistors in both circuits are in series and that we need to use the equation Req = R1+R2+R3.. to find the Req in both cases. How come the resistors are in series, when there are multiple resistors in a single row? Also, why does the following work yield the...
  13. samy4408

    I Why in an electric circuit with only a generator the resistance R=infinity?

    Why in an electric circuit with only a generator the resistance R=infinity? [Newbie's post edited by a Mentor to delete extraneous embellishment]
  14. simphysics

    Single Loop Potential difference -- sign issue

    Hello everyone, I've been struggling with this problem for 1 hour so far. homework-and-exerciseselectric-cir
  15. M

    Engineering Induction motor calculation problems

    Given the following input parameters: Parameter Value Rs (Resistance through stator) 1.4 Ω Rr (Resistance through stator) 0.7 Ω Ls (stator inductance) = Lr (rotor inductance) 0.002 H xs = xr = 2*π*f*Ls 0.6283i Ω Lm(magnetic inductance) 0.01 H xm = 2*π*f*Lm 3.1415iΩ f (frequency)...
  16. doggy

    Electronics NPN transistor is always flickering and on

    I'm completely new in hobby electronics, and I assembled the following circuit to control a power LED over wifi using esp8266. The problem is, that it is always, on and sometimes flicker , no matter,what I send via GPIO1 port. I know that this is not an esp8266 problem, I tested my program with...
  17. Istiak

    Delta to Wye conversion

    I was following these [steps]( I was calculating resistance for left side circuit. $$R_1=\frac{2 × 2}{2+2+4}=0.5\Omega$$ $$R_2=\frac{2 × 4}{2+2+4}=1\Omega$$ $$R_3=\frac{2 × 4}{2+2+4}=1\Omega$$ Then...
  18. M

    Some questions about capacitor discharging

    why does the voltage of the capacitor eventually go to 0 when discharging the capacitor? I heard that's because "current starts flowing when discharging", but how exactly does that lead to V going down? I know that I = C * dV/dt, but that doesn't seem to help me understand why V goes down (which...
  19. D

    Calculating the resistance in a compensating circuit for a thermocouple

    Homework Statement:: A K-type thermocouple is connected as shown to sense temperature. The temperature zone is at 25°C. The RTD has a resistance of 100 at 0°C and a TCR coefficient of 0.00385. A 5V power supply drives the circuit. Calculate R2 for proper compensation. What is the emf produced...
  20. curiosissimo

    Using Kirchhoff's laws on this current division problem

    The main problem is the verse of the 2 currents ## i1 ## and ## i2 ## . I think they both go clockwise, so in the node A we should have ##i1+i2=20A##. Now let's apply the second law (going clockwise). So ##ΔV1-R1*i3 - R2*i4 + ΔV2=0##, where ##i3## and ##i4## are the currents which pass through...
  21. Kaushik

    Question about charged capacitors and inserting a dielectric into one

    First when it is connected to the battery, the capacitors start accumulating charges such that the potential difference equals that of the battery. Then the current stops flowing. ##Q_1 = CV## ##Q_2 = nCV## Where 1 and 2 represent the capacitor with capacitance C and nC respectively Then, when...
  22. Kaushik

    Does potential drop when a charge flows through a wire w/ 0 resistance?

    Let us connect a battery of potential difference V to a wire. There is no resistance. Nothing! Now the battery creates some potential difference and the charges in the conducting wire move due to the Electric field created in the conductor by the battery. So, as the charge moves, its potential...
  23. Boltzman Oscillation

    Where is the demodulator in this AM receiver?

    I am trying my hands on building receivers and transmitters. For now I would like to build this receiver here: now I see that the 500pH inductor in parallel witht he 200uH capacitor are in charge of filtering the unwanted frequencies. The top-left NPN is in my guess an emitter follower to...
  24. Boltzman Oscillation

    What approach should be used when solving a circuit?

    I am close to graduating as an EE major but I have never been able to organize a step by step method on analyzing a circuit. It seems to me that every time I am trying to analize a circuit I end up with a bunch of equations and nothing more. I know that I should: 1. Know what I am solving for...
  25. Boltzman Oscillation

    Engineering How does this Bipolar RF Amplifier + Output Transformer circuit work?

    I am trying to create a receiver for a personal project I am working on. This is the RF amplifier that I was given by a book I am following. How does this circuit work? Usually for a BJT amplifier I find the DC bias point and then use the small signal model after I bias the circuit? I understand...
  26. Adesh

    Capacitors connected in series: Why is the voltage the same?

    Here is a circuit diagram: . We have three capacitors, with capacitances ##C_1##, ##C_2## and ##C_3##. Plates are labelled as ##A_1, A_2, A_3 ... A_6##. Point P is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and point N is connected to the negative terminal of the...
  27. Boltzman Oscillation

    Engineering Variable Gain Amplifier Analysis help

    I need to find A_v, I want to relate Vin to Vout. To do this I did KVL on the major loop: $$V_{DD} = I_D*R_D + V_{SD1} - V_{SD2} - I_D*R_D$$ Since M1 = M2 then everything would cancel out and I would just get V_dd = 0 which is probably wrong. This is assuming V_sd1 = V_sd2, is that correct?
  28. S

    Current Induced in one circuit by another circuit

  29. M

    How to calculate the efficiency of a switch mode power supply?

    I know how to calculate the power output and input by analyzing the current in put and output with multimeters and using the formula P=VI. But P_out is obviously incomparably smaller than P_in so the efficiency would suck this way. Is there a better way to do this??
  30. B

    KCL got declined in Norton circuit of an ideal amplifier circuit

    Hi. Let's say we have a circuit like that, and we want to find the Thevenin/Norton circuit from a and b points. So for Vth, we calculate the Voc, in which we remove the 2K ohm resistor and calculate the Voc. I calculated it correctly. But I have problem in calculating the Norton current. So in...
  31. B

    Equivalent resistor of a simple circuit

    Hi. Anyone knows how to calculate the Req of this circuit? n tends to infinite.
  32. Prabs3257

    Heat dissipated in a Resistor-Capacitor circuit

    I tried to conserve the charge on the left plates of both the capacitors as intially the total charge on both is 48 and at t=t0 the total charge is 36(on c1) +4V(V is the potential across c2) so i got V=3 and then i conserved the energy Initial energy on both capacitor = final energy on both +...
  33. engnrshyckh

    Finding the fault in this circuit (UV lamp controller)

    Guys this circuit and shematic is of UV lamp controller.. It burns sometime as shown in figure can someone tell the reason?
  34. K

    Discharging this capacitor in an RC bridge circuit

    The voltage source in the circuit below has been switched on for a long time when the switch S switches off. How long will it take before the current coming out of the capacitor has become less than 1 mA? My attempt: I am far from sure that my solution is correct. This is because i...
  35. Boltzman Oscillation

    How can I determine whether my basic circuit will work? A battery and two light sources...

    Homework Statement:: How can I determine whether my basic circuit will work? A battery and two light sources. Homework Equations:: conceptual question, use basic ohms law, current law, voltage law, etc. This is not a homework question, i am just trying to understand electronics better. I am...
  36. J

    Thevenin isolates nonlinear element

    I have no problem getting the ##R_{TH}## since from the special element's POV, the resistors are in parallel, and that's the answer. However, I don't really understand how to get ##V_{TH}##. Ignoring the special element, it seems that I have the resistors in series this time. But I'm not too...
  37. J

    A Circuit with Nonlinear Element—finding element's current & voltage

    I don't really understand or see the correct way to approach this. Letting the current in question be ##i_x## (as shown in Fig. 1), and the unknown (changing) resistance be $R_x$, I can write: ##-V_s + R_s i_s + i_x R_x = 0##, and ##R_p i_p = i_x R_x##. Hence we can also write ##-V_s + R_s i_s...
  38. J

    Circuit Analysis of a diagram with series and parallel circuits

    I found the Req which is 13.6 and also found the It which is 0.74. I'm having trouble finding the separate current and potential difference numbers.
  39. J

    Introductory Circuit Analysis—power ratings

    I am going through "Circuit Analysis for Dummies". On pg 18, it says, "If you calculate the power dissipated as 0.1 watts, then a 0.25-watt resistor can handle this amount of power. A 0.125-watt resistor should be able to handle that amount as well, but when it comes to power ratings, err on the...
  40. D

    Voltage and current as functions of time for a series RL circuit

    I already found ##I(t)## using Kirchhoff's laws, I got the equation ##V-RI-L\frac{dI}{dt}=0\Rightarrow L\frac{dI}{dt}=V-RI## then I solved the differential equation getting ##I(t)=\frac{V}{R}\left[1-e^{-\frac{R}{L}t}\right]##. My problem is founding the voltage as a function of time ##V(t)##, I...
  41. D

    Finding the current and voltage for a resistor

    I tried to solve it by loop currents. So on the left mesh the loop current ##I_1## goes clockwise and on the right mesh the loop current ##I_2## goes counterclockwise. I ended up with the following equations: 1) ##V_1-R_1(I_1+I_2)-R_2I_1=0##; 2) ##V_2-R_3I_2-R_1(I_1+I_2)=0##. To find the...
  42. K

    Other Upper division undergraduate electronics and circuits textbooks

    Hello everyone, I am in an upper division undergraduate electronics and circuits class right now and the textbook that were using (Eggleston: basic electronics for scientists and engineers) is not resonating with me. I was wondering if anyone had recommendations for a textbook that explains...
  43. Boltzman Oscillation

    Engineering How can I find the open loop voltage gain of this opamp?

    The open loop voltage gain is given as : $$ u(s) = \frac{u_o}{1+\frac{s}{w_o}} = \frac{100}{1 + \frac{s}{40}}$$ Where u_o is the d.c. voltage gain and w_o is the pole. The op amp that is given is: And I am told to use the non ideal op amp model as follows: Well my guess is that I can...
  44. gregorspv

    Removing connections between equipotential points in solving circuits?

    A sketch of the setup and the equivalent circuit are attached. I believe the correct way to solve this is to redraw the circuit as shown in Fig. 3 and then remove the connections between evidently equipotential points, which reduces the problem to a familiar setup of in parallel and in series...
  45. Boltzman Oscillation

    Engineering Help finding the damping ratio formula for this circuit

    The circuit to be analyzed is shown below: Since initial conditions are zero (from the instructions) I will use laplace transforms for the cirucit and I will use the MAME method to solve this circuit. The laplace transforms that are required will give me: $$E_g(s) = \frac{10}{s}$$ $$ L_3...
  46. W

    How to find the current and voltage in a circuit with current sources?

    Summary: Facing a circuit with 2 parallel resistors and 2 current sources (1 dependent, 1 independent). Trying to find the current, voltage, power delivered by the independent current source and power delivered by the dependent current source. I'm trying to start by finding the current i0 but...
  47. Michael_0039

    Engineering Determine if the dependent source of the circuit delivering power or...

    Hi all ! I want a confirmation for this exercise please. The circuit: This is my try: -- Thanks
  48. Eugene567

    What forces are acting on electron in a circuit?

    What forces are acting on electron in a circuit? What is the source of such kind of forces? Do electrons act on each other in electric current? If i have an ordinary electric circuit with only one resistor, then if i raise resistance, the electric current goes down. As I understand it happens...
  49. K

    How does circuit complete when using live wire tester?

    I raise this question because at a fundamental level I still do not understand how a Capacitor works and how a circuit completes thru capacitor. The live electric tester screwdriver uses stray body capacitance to lit a neon when one end comes in contact with live wire and another with a human...
  50. M

    PNP transistor and Voltage

    The problem: My attempt: