I've been wondering, is it possible to model both the Hubble redshift and dark energy as a gravitational field which gets strong the further away you look? For example, we know that light from distant galaxies is red-shifted, which is equivalent to a photon having climbed out of a gravitational potential well. At the same time, since the light coming to us from these distant objects is all from the past, we could treat the past as a gravitational well. So, increasing distance and increasing past having higher gravitational attraction. If everything sits in a gravitational well which always increases as you look further out, and if the cause of this gravitational well is the fact that the universe was smaller before, then it would appear that everything would always be attracted to the edge of the universe, and that this attraction would increase over time because there would be more past behind us. So, I guess, the question is, can dark energy be modeled as a gravitational field coming from the "edges" of the universe, causing objects to accelerate ever faster away from each other? Another example is take a black hole. Things are attracted to the event horizon, but suppose we turn it inside out. The objects are inside the black hole now, but they are repelled from the singularity and attracted to the event horizon.