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Double Integration change of variables

  1. Feb 29, 2008 #1
    I just cannot understand the following transformation, where [tex]\phi(t)[/tex] is the displacement of an optimal path using standard calculus of variations. All functions are defined between 0 and T. [tex]\phi[/tex] equals zero at 0 and T. r is some discount rate, e it the Euler number, t is time.


    This should be equal to


    If anybody knows the answer, I would be very happy to get some help here.
    Thanks in advance!
  2. jcsd
  3. Feb 29, 2008 #2


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    I think you're being blinded by the detail.

    Look carefully and you'll see that the only difference in the two integrands is that t and [tex]\tau[/tex] have been swapped over.

    Now, you can always change the names of the variables. For example, ∫f(x)dx = ∫f(y)dy, or ∫∫f(x,y)dxdy = ∫∫f(z,w)dzdw.

    In your example, x = w and y = z: ∫∫f(x,y)dxdy = ∫∫f(y,x)dydx.

    The only place you have to be careful is in choosing the range of integration.

    It is the triangular area 0 < [tex]\tau[/tex] < t; 0 < t < T.

    In other words, all pairs of t and [tex]\tau[/tex] with [tex]\tau[/tex] < t < T.

    Swapping t and [tex]\tau[/tex] gives: all pairs of t and [tex]\tau[/tex] with t < [tex]\tau[/tex] < T, or:
    :smile: t < [tex]\tau[/tex] < T; 0 < t < T. :smile:
  4. Feb 29, 2008 #3
    Thank you so much!!! Your answer makes perfect sense!
  5. Feb 29, 2008 #4


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    Welcome to PF!

    You're very welcome!
    Which reminds me, I forgot to say …

    :smile: Welcome to PF! :smile:
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