# What is Integration: Definition and 1000 Discussions

System integration is defined in engineering as the process of bringing together the component sub-systems into one system (an aggregation of subsystems cooperating so that the system is able to deliver the overarching functionality) and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system, and in information technology as the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole.
The system integrator integrates discrete systems utilizing a variety of techniques such as computer networking, enterprise application integration, business process management or manual programming.System integration involves integrating existing, often disparate systems in such a way "that focuses on increasing value to the customer" (e.g., improved product quality and performance) while at the same time providing value to the company (e.g., reducing operational costs and improving response time). In the modern world connected by Internet, the role of system integration engineers is important: more and more systems are designed to connect, both within the system under construction and to systems that are already deployed.

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1. ### Integration Substitution Techniques for quadratic expressions under square roots

Hi, With respect to the techniques mentioned in point 2 and 3: Can someone explain or even better, post a link for an explanation or a videos showing the use of these two techniques. Below excerpt shows problems 4 and 5 referenced in the above 2 points:
2. ### Solving this definite integral using integration by parts

Using integration by parts: $$I_n=\left. x(1+x^2)^{-n} \right|_0^1+\int_0^{1} 2nx^2(1+x^2)^{-(n+1)}dx$$ $$I_n=2^{-n} + 2n \int_0^{1} x^2(1+x^2)^{-(n+1)}dx$$ Then how to continue? Thanks
3. ### Impulse integration for a Tennis Racket hitting a Tennis Ball

For this, Can someone please tell me why they integrate the impulse over from ##t_i## to ##t_f##? Why not from ##j_i## to ##j_f##? It seems strange integrating impulse with respect to time. Many thanks!
4. ### B Explain Integration to me, please

Hi all, I understand what the integral does - it calculates the area under a curve and can easily see how it could be used to calculate an area of land. What I do not understand is really the physical meaning when it comes to the real world. Here are some examples: 1. A set of data...
5. ### Insights The Art of Integration

This article cannot replace the 1220 pages of the almanac Gradshteyn-Ryzhik but it tries on 1% of the pages to summarize the main techniques. Continue reading...
6. ### Solution to Schwarzschild Equation for Constant t,r

In 1916, Karl Schwarzschild was the first person to present a solution to Einstein's field equations. I am using a form of his equation that is presented in Tensors, Relativity and Cosmology by Mirjana Dalarsson and Nils Dalarsson (Chapter 19, p.205). I am approaching what may be the simplest...
7. ### Insights An Overview of Complex Differentiation and Integration

I want to shed some light on complex analysis without getting all the technical details in the way which are necessary for the precise treatments that can be found in many excellent standard textbooks. Analysis is about differentiation. Hence, complex differentiation will be my starting point...
8. ### I Integration of Bessel function products (J_1(x)^2/xdx)

Hello, While reading Sakurai (scattering theory/Eikonal approximation section), I encountered a referenced integral ## \int_0^\infty J_1(x)^2\frac{dx}{x}=1/2 ## I also see this integral from a few places (wolfram, DLMF, etc), so I tried to prove this from various angles (recurrence relations...
9. ### Symbolic integration of a Bessel function with a complex argument

Hello all I am trying to solve the following integral with Mathematica and I'm having some issues with it. where Jo is a Bessel Function of first kind and order 0. Notice that k is a complex number given by Where delta is a coefficient. Due to the complex arguments I'm integrating the...
10. ### I Parameter Integration of Bubble Integral

Referring to this link : https://qcdloop.fnal.gov/bubg.pdf Using Mathematica Integrate command to solve it does not give the result stated here but I am unclear as to how they got to the result in the 4th line. It is clear that the integrand (1st line) can diverge for certain values of the...
11. ### Applying integration to math problems

Ok i know that, ##\int (x+2)^2 dx= \int [x^2+4x+4] dx= \dfrac{x^3}{3}+2x^2+4x+c## when i use substitution; i.e letting ##u=x+2## i end up with; ##\int u^2 du= \dfrac{u^3}{3}+c=\dfrac {(x+2)^3}{3}+c=\dfrac{x^3+6x^2+12x+8}{3} +c## clearly the two solutions are not the same... appreciate your...
12. ### I How can I calculate length contraction for accelerated motion?

Let's assume a spaceship traveling from the Earth to the Proxima Centauri with constant acceleration g = 9.81 m/s2. The ship is accelerating the first half of the trajectory and decelerating the second half. I calculated the velocity profile from the Earth reference: The travel time on...
13. ### Question about approximate numerical integration methods

This isn't a homework question per se but I can post more details like the data points & my work after. Suppose we are given a set of arbitrary points for which we cannot find an equation and we need to find the area under the curve without an analytical method - we can use either of the three...
14. ### Confused about polar integrals and setting up bounds

So I want to subtract the two surfaces, right? I really don't know where to start... I am guessing this would be some sort of triple integral, however I am very confused with the bounds. Any help would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!!
15. ### I Relating integration of forms to Riemann integration

Partition each closed interval ##[a_i,b_i]## in the Cartesian product, ##A##. Denote the partition for the i-th closed interval as ##\{x_i^1,\ldots,x_i^{k_i}\}##. The Cartesian product of the partitions forms a partition of ##A## (think: a lattice of points that coincide with the points of each...
16. ### No Limits of Integration for Electric Field Integral?

For this problem, The solution is, However, why have they not included limits of integration? I think this is because all the small charge elements dq across the ring add up to Q. However, how would you solve this problem with limits of integration? Many thanks!
17. ### I Is my Integration ok?

I'm trying to compute ##\int_0^1 x^m \ln x \, \mathrm{d}x##. I'm wondering if the bit about the application of L'Hopital's rule was ok. Can anyone check? Letting ##u = \ln x## and ##\mathrm{d}v = x^m##, we have ##\mathrm{d}u = \frac{1}{x}\mathrm{d}x ## and ##v = \frac{x^{m+1}}{m+1}##...
18. ### Find ##f(x)## in the problem involving integration

Q. 3(b). This is a textbook problem; unless i am missing something ...the textbook solution is wrong! solution; Mythoughts; ##f(x)=2\cos 3x-3\sin 3x## ...by using the product rule on ##\dfrac{d}{dx} (e^{2x} \cos 3x)##.
19. ### Integration of structure function F2 to calculate quark momentum

I study particle physics with “Particles and Nuclei” / Povh et al. and “Modern particle physics” / Mark Thomson and I am currently at “Deep-Inelastic scattering”. After introducing several scattering equations, such as Rosenbluth, that all include terms for electric AND magnetic scattering, i.e...
20. ### Complex Integration Along Given Path

From plotting the given path I know that the path is a curve that extends from z = 1 to z=5 on the complex plane. My plan was to parametrize the distance from z = 1 to 5 as z = x, and create a closed contour that encloses z=0, where I could use Cauchy's Integral Formula, with f(z) being 1 / (z +...
21. F

### Jacobian: how to change limits of integration?

Hello, I have to compute a double integral of the form ## \int_{0}^{\infty} \int_{0}^{\infty} f(u,v) du dv##, where ##f(u,v)## is not relevant. The following change of variable is advised as a hint: ## u = zt ## and ## v = z(1-t)##. From there, I can reformulate with respect to ##z## and...
22. ### Integration of acceleration in polar coordinates

I made this exercise up to acquire more skill with polar coordinates. The idea is you're given the acceleration vector and have to find the position vector corresponding to it, working in reverse of the image. My attempts are the following, I proceed using 3 "independent" methods just as you...
23. ### I Please Check My Integration

Does my below integration is correct? ##\int \sqrt{1 - x^2} \ dx## Let ##x = \sin \theta##, then ##dx = \cos \theta \ d \theta##, ##\cos \theta = \sqrt{1 - x^2}##, ##\theta = \sin^{-1} (x)## ##\int \sqrt{1 - x^2} \ dx## ##= \int \left( \sqrt{1 - \sin^2 \theta} \right) \ \left( \cos \theta \...
24. ### I Formula for integration of natural coordinates over an element

In a textbook I own a formula is given for the integration of natural coordinates over an element. In this case it is a 1 dimensional element (i.e. a line segment) with coordinates ##x_i## and ##x_j##. The coordinate ##x## over the element is written as: $$x = L_1(x) x_i + L_2(x) x_j$$ with...
25. ### I I would like opinions of the latest draft of my note - Integration

The note is entitled: Evaluation of a Class of n-fold Integrals by Means of Hadamard Fractional Integration. 4 pgs pdf format. I assure you that you need not know anything about fractional calculus at all to understand this note that Howard Cohl helped me with. We only use a single...
26. ### Area of a segment of a circle

Problem Statement : To find the area of the shaded segment filled in red in the circle shown to the right. The region is marked by the points PQRP. Attempt 1 (without calculus): I mark some relevant lengths inside the circle, shown left. Clearly OS = 9 cm and SP = 12 cm using the...
27. ### Proving that ##T## is skew-symmetric, inner product is an integration.

##\langle T(f), g \rangle = \int_{0}^{1} \int_{0}^{x} f(t) dt ~ g(t) dt## As ##\int_{0}^{x} f(t) dt## will be a function in ##x##, therefore a constant w.r.t. ##dt##, we have ##\langle T(f), g \rangle = \int_{0}^{x} f(t) dt ~ \int_{0}^{1} g(t) dt## ##\langle f, T(g)\rangle = \int_{0}^{1} f(t)...
28. ### Applied Bibliography on integration and ODE/PDE solving techniques for physics

Hi, you all, I open this thread to ask for any recommendation concerning integration as well as ODE/PDE solving techniques for physics. I love mathematics, and I usually read material on pure mathematics (most notably abstract algebra and a bit of topology) but here I'm more interested in the...
29. ### Change in the order of integration in triple integrals

If we solve the L.H.S. of this equation, we get ## \frac{(b-a)^3}{6}## and if we solve R.H.S. of this equation, we get ##-\frac{2b^3-3ba^2 +a^3}{6}## So, how can we say, this equation is valid? By the way, how can we use the hint given by the author here?
30. ### Limits of Integration in the Transmission Coefficient

Initially '0' is the upper limit and ##a = \frac{Ze^2}{E}## is the lower limit. With change of variable ##x = \frac{Er}{Ze^2}##, for ##r=0##, ##x=0##, and for ##r=\frac{Ze^2}{E}##, ##x=1##, so 1 should be the lower limit. However, he takes 1 as the upper limit, and without a minus sign. Why is...
31. ### A Feynman parametrization integration by parts

How can i move from this expression: $$\frac{4}{\pi^{4}} \int dk \frac{1}{k^2} \frac{1}{(1+i(k-k_{f}))^3} \frac{1}{(1+i(k-k_{i}))^3}$$ to this one: $$\frac{4}{\pi^{4}} \int dk \frac{1}{k^2} \frac{1}{(1+|k-k_{i}|^2)^2} \frac{1}{(1+|k-k_{f}|^2)^2}$$ using Feynman parametrization (Integration by...

33. ### Indefinite Integration of Heaviside function muliplied by a function

Will it be [{(r-a)/r}*H(r-a)]
34. M

### Mathematica Numerical integration over a Green's function

Hi PF! I'm numerically integrating over a Green's function along with a few very odd functions. What I have looks like this NIntegrate[-(1/((-1. + x)^2 (1. + x)^2 (1. + y)^2)) 3.9787262092516675*^14 (3.9999999999999907 + x (-14.99999999999903 + x (20.00000000000097` -...
35. ### I High schooler Develops new Integration Technique

https://www.wuft.org/news/2022/02/18/buchholz-high-school-student-discovers-and-publishes-new-calculus-technique/
36. ### MHB Exploring Proposition 6.1.2 from D&K's Multidimensional Real Analysis II (Integration)

I am reading Multidimensional Real Analysis II (Integration) by J.J. Duistermaat and J.A.C. Kolk ... and am focused on Chapter 6: Integration ... I need some help with the proof of Proposition 6.1.2 ... and for this post I will focus on the first auxiliary result ... see (i) ... at the start of...
37. ### Solving Motion Equations with Integration

I'm not sure where to start, when I tired using integration of the initial equation to get pos(t)=-.65t^2 i + .13t^2 j + 14ti +13tj but after separating each component, i and j, and setting j equal to zero I got 0 or -100 seconds which doesn't seem like a reasonable answer.
38. ### Integration of velocity to get displacement

Integration of v= integration of##(alpha \sqrt x)dx##. But I am getting wrong answer.
39. ### I Number of integration constants

If we have system of 3 ordinary differential equation in mechanics and we have two initial condition ##\vec{r}(t=0)=0## and ##\vec{v}(t=0)=\vec{v}_0 \vec{i}##. If we somehow get \frac{d^2v_x}{dt^2}=-\omega^2v_x then v_x(t)=A\sin(\omega t)+B\cos(\omega t) Two integration constants and one initial...
40. ### Integration of a function

I tried using substitution ##u=\sqrt{16x-x^8}##, didn't work Tried factorize ##x## from the denominator and then used ##u=\sqrt{16-x^7}##, didn't work Tried using ##u=x^4## also didn't work How to approach this question? Thanks
41. ### Notation clarification: SU(N) group integration

Hello, I would like help to clarify what det( {\delta \over \delta J}) W(J) (equation 15.79) actually means, and why it returns a number (and not a matrix). This comes from the following problem statement (Kaku, Quantum Field Theory, a Modern Introduction) Naively, one would define det...
42. ### MHB Double integration problem

does anyone know how to solve this/can lead me on a direction to where I will get an answer that actually makes sense lol? I keep getting a negative answer/0. For context, I'm tryna find the surface area of a pringle and all the sources I've visited always estimate the projected 2D region as a...
43. ### I Impulsive force and simple integration

May I ask if the following process is correct? Given: F=ma Apply an impulsive force using the dirac delta near 0 (with F nearly constant over the tiny impulsive interval) ma = Fδ(t) This is a second order differential equation with a forcing function. However, I cannot readily integrate...
44. ### Changing the interval of integration

Greetings Dear community! Here is the solutions using two different methods: the first method is the Green theorem and the second is the simple path integration method: My question is why they integrate over [0.2pi] in the path integration method while they integrate within [0. pi] in the...
45. J

### A Problem solving forces with pressure integration

Angle theta is different for every place at airfoil surface, so it can't be one theta from leading edge to trailing edge. Can please someone explain pressure integration in depth, step by step?