# B Electrons in a nonmoving conductor and non-varying magnetic field

#### PainterGuy

Summary
Do the magnetic field of electrons in a stationary conductor interfere with the non-varying magnetic field around them?
Hi,

My understanding of quantum physics is very basic. I have read that each electron has its own magnetic field; in other words, each electron acts like a mini bar magnet. I was reading about Lenz's law and an unrelated point started confusing me.

I was reading this text about Lenz's law: https://imagizer.imageshack.com/img921/1874/nUBPY6.jpg
Source: https://www.electrical4u.com/lenz-law-of-electromagnetic-induction/

If each electron really acts like a mini magnet then a stationary bar magnet situated close to the coil should attract the coil electrons by aligning their magnetic fields and create potential difference across the coil. I know what I'm saying cannot be true because it would result into a free energy generator. But this also means that the way I'm picturing electrons as mini bar magnets is also wrong. Does the bar magnet, or non-varying magnetic field in general, affect the electrons in a stationary conductor in any way?

Thank you for your help!

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#### vanhees71

Gold Member
Of course it does. Have a look at the Pauli equation!

#### Mentz114

Gold Member
Summary: Do the magnetic field of electrons in a stationary conductor interfere with the non-varying magnetic field around them?

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If each electron really acts like a mini magnet then a stationary bar magnet situated close to the coil should attract the coil electrons by aligning their magnetic fields and create potential difference across the coil.

[]
Thank you for your help!
Threre could be a PD across the ends of the coil but that does not make an energy source. Of course if the magnet and coil move relative to each other then a current could exist and that can do work.

#### PainterGuy

Thank you!

Of course it does. Have a look at the Pauli equation!
I did have a look on it, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_equation, but couldn't understand it. Could you please tell me what it says in the context of my question? How does magnetic field affect the electrons?

Threre could be a PD across the ends of the coil but that does not make an energy source. Of course if the magnet and coil move relative to each other then a current could exist and that can do work.
So, it's correct that a stationary bar magnet situated close to the coil should attract the coil electrons by aligning their magnetic fields and create potential difference across the coil. In my humble opinion, if it could create potential difference, PD, then once the circuit is completed, the current should flow. It would result into a free energy generator. Where am I having it wrong?

Thank you for your help.

#### Mentz114

Gold Member
Thank you!

I did have a look on it, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauli_equation, but couldn't understand it. Could you please tell me what it says in the context of my question? How does magnetic field affect the electrons?

So, it's correct that a stationary bar magnet situated close to the coil should attract the coil electrons by aligning their magnetic fields and create potential difference across the coil. In my humble opinion, if it could create potential difference, PD, then once the circuit is completed, the current should flow. It would result into a free energy generator. Where am I having it wrong?

Thank you for your help.
How do you know that aligning spins alters the charge distribution ?
Even if you were correct in this, the situation you describe could result only in a static charge difference which will only produce a momentary discharge current.

#### PainterGuy

Thank you!

How do you know that aligning spins alters the charge distribution ?
In the picture below, the coil has free electrons and each electron acts like mini magnet. The bar magnet would try to align the south pole of electrons toward its north pole, and it would result into a potential difference or current if the circuit is complete. If the circuit is not complete then the bar magnet would attract as much electrons as it could until the electrostatic repulsion/attraction balance the outward attraction force from the bar magnet.

Picture #1:

Picture #2:

Even if you were correct in this, the situation you describe could result only in a static charge difference which will only produce a momentary discharge current.
If I'm correct, it would be a constant continuous current because the bar magnet would keep on attracting the electrons and the electrons would start circulating in the circuit.

Thank you for your time and help!

#### Mentz114

Gold Member
Thank you!

In the picture below, the coil has free electrons and each electron acts like mini magnet. The bar magnet would try to align the south pole of electrons toward its north pole, and it would result into a potential difference or current if the circuit is complete. If the circuit is not complete then the bar magnet would attract as much electrons as it could until the electrostatic repulsion/attraction balance the outward attraction force from the bar magnet.

Picture #1:
View attachment 252542

Picture #2:
View attachment 252544

If I'm correct, it would be a constant continuous current because the bar magnet would keep on attracting the electrons and the electrons would start circulating in the circuit.

Thank you for your time and help!
${\displaystyle {\mathcal {E}}=-{\frac {\mathrm {d} \Phi _{B}}{\mathrm {d} t}},}$

There will not be any circulation unless there is work done.
I have nothing further to say.

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