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I have a very simple question. Consider a free scalar field in the realm of GR. Then its stress energy tensor, in a Roberton-Walker Universe, is the one of a perfect fluid with pressure=denity, hence an equation of state : w=p/rho=1

However this scalar model is an archetype of maslesss (spin 0) particles. Now if you consider massless particles in a box, and do your thermo/statistical physics homework on it, you find that, as any relativistic (masless) particles, the pressure must be 1/3 of the density, just as it is the case for photons. Hence here we find w=p/rho=1/3 for such a scalar field in a box.

Where's the discrepancy coming from?

Thanks for comments!

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# Equation of state in gravity vs microphysics

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