1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data I want to know the steps involved in finding the magnitude of a complex exponential function. An example of the following is shown in this picture: 2. Relevant equations |a+jb|=sqrt(a^2+b^2) |x/y|=|x|/|y| 3. The attempt at a solution For the denominator, I replaced z with e^jw and used euler identity to expand the terms. 1-2rcos(w)e^(-jw)+r^2e^(-2jw) 1-rcos(w)*(cos(w)-jsinw)+.5r^2(cos(2w)-jsin(2w)) After simplifying I get: 1-rcos^2(w)+.5r^2cos(2w) + j(rsin(w)cos(w)-.5r^2sin(2w) from there I let a=1-r(cos^2(w)-.5r^2cos(2w)) and b=r(sin(w)cos(w)-.5rsin(2w)) and using wolfram alpha to solve for sqrt(a^2+b^2) I don't get the simplified expression shown in the picture above. Am I approaching the problem correctly?