# Forging and Toughness questions

1. ### pukb

94
Area under stress strain curve is known as toughness.
Does it represent impact toughness or fracture toughness?
Is there any relation between area and fracture and impact toughness?

2. ### pukb

94
Forging and toughness

Toughness of the material increases after forging.
Is it due to reduction in number of cracks and crack lengths or is there any other fundamental reason to it?

3. ### MalliCk

33
Forging improves toughness due the laminar structure i.e. formed during forging process. Grain size is reformed and yes inhomogeneities like cracks, voids are minimized during forging.

4. ### pukb

94
can you explain more about laminar structure

5. ### MalliCk

33
Laminar structure appear macroscopically in a sense, uniform flow of metal during compression causes formation of such structure. Laminar structures are synonymous to laminae in composites, hence they favour crack arrest.

Hope this solves your query, if more interested try searching for Laminar Structure in Forging online for futher information.