Antioxidants react with reactive oxygen species (such as hydrogen peroxide) to produce water. And example of this is catalase which is present in bacteria such as E. coli and P. aeruginosa. It is also known that Honey has antibacterial properties. One factor is hydrogen peroxide that kills the bacteria. Buckwheat honey, for example, has a great amount of antioxidants (causing its dark colour) and a great amount of hydrogen peroxide (more than most honeys). Don't they contradict each other? And in an experiment I did, Buckwheat had the most negative effect on the growth of the previously mentioned bacteria. other honey's such as Clover, Wildflower, and Agave showed no antibacterial activity. Is there any way to make sense of this? Another factor is water concentration. Honey is a lower amount of water tend to be more effective against bacteria. Buckwheat honey, again for example, has a low amount of water which agrees with the fact that it is good against bacteria. Also, I researched that a protein that bees have called defensin-1 is found in honey. And it has the most effect on antibacterial activity. So does that mean, from the experiment, that Buckwheat usually contains a lot of defensin-1 while the honeys do not. Explaning how they showed no inhibition of growth in bacteria. Any comments or if possible primary articles would be appreciated.