I'm interested in that question not for novel purpose, but for pen and paper RPG scenario. Assumptions: 1) It was possible (though under cost of becoming clearly a soft SF ;) ) of transporting a big group of people to a far away habitable planet with contemporary tech. 2) Such transfer mechanism worked a bit also in past, (last deviation from hard SF, I promise, ;) I needed a way to make local organisms compatible) thus local flora, fauna and microorganism evolved from those from our planet. Had there been any local primitive life forms - they were outcompeted by our. Consequence - local plants and animals can be edible. 3)The planet is a bit colder, but a bit more massive and it has twice as high atmospheric pressure. (with slightly lower oxygen percentage it should work, right?) It orbits a really tiny red dwarf (so it is tidally locked, I calculated something like 8 day orbit). Because of denser atmosphere and let's say 80% ocean cover it should have reasonable heat transfer. (right?) Additionally the system is binary and there is also a yellow main sequence star. The planet gets 2/3 of heat from the red dwarf, and 1/3 the main sequence star. The orbit of planet is tilted to the plane of orbit of both stars around common centre of mass thus in long run every point on planet surface is going to be temporarily heated and no long term freezing of carbon dioxide is possible. 4) I assume that the main place of settlement would be on the side heated by red dwarf, but not in the hottest point. I also assume that the heating from effectively long "day" (day seen from perspective of someone watching the yellow star) would reduce habitability of places with more continental climate - thus main settlement would be near shores. I also think that with low population density the main source of electricity should be water power. OK, I have the following question - what would be the minimum population to maintain industrial complex and thus technological civilization? (Assume that it was possible to backup all or practically all necessary information like blueprints or info about technological processes. Also assume that there were people to choose from, thus on general it was possible to take people who were good at their field) By expected part of technological civilization I mean: -possibility to produce personal computers -possibility to produce wide array of normally used medication (I case if it can be differently understood, I mean something like: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2011/a95053_eng.pdf ) -modern agriculture with fertilizers, pesticides and tractors (except from that a much lower standard of living is possible, with much lower personal consumption. Also let's say resignation from ex. aircraft is possible. The aim is to preserve only slightly reduced life expectancy and information technology, using steamboats if necessary - fully acceptable.) What would be the most effective way to cut the corners to achieve that? Desperate standardization (any colour as long as it is black)? It's too early for application of additive manufacturing, right?