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Integration technique: Multiplication by a form of 1.

  1. Jun 26, 2007 #1
    I would much appriciate if someone could direct me to a webpage that has examples of this. My book, Thomas Calculus, only has one example (elementary) and this is for self study so I don't have lecture notes to go with it. All the questions in it are on trig integrals if that's any help.
  2. jcsd
  3. Jun 26, 2007 #2
    Take the simple case [tex]\int \frac{d\theta}{cos(\theta)}\ [/tex]

    Multiply the integrand by [tex]\frac{cos(\theta)}{cos(\theta)}\ [/tex], which is 1, and you get:

    [tex]\int \frac{cos(\theta)d\theta}{cos^2(\theta)}\ [/tex] = [tex]\int \frac{cos(\theta)d\theta}{1 - sin^2(\theta)}\ [/tex]

    Then, if you put [tex]u = sin(\theta)[/tex], and make all necessary substitutions, the integral becomes:

    [tex]\frac{du}{1 - u^2}\ [/tex]

    Which is trivial to integrate by partial fractions. So hopefully I have shown that multiplication by a form of 1 can be useful in finding integrals that look intimidating such as the integral of sec(x), as above.
    Last edited: Jun 26, 2007
  4. Jun 27, 2007 #3
    Oh I do know it is useful, that's why I want the practice. It's just that I wanted to get more of a feel for how it's done by some examples that are worked through. Worst comes to worst I'll just make some up and back differentiate them and see what happens then.
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