# Is this not mathematical evidence that the universe is an open system?

• iidartzii
In summary, the conversation discusses the relationship between the law of conservation of momentum and Hubble's law in regards to the universe as a closed, isolated system. It is argued that if the universe is a closed system, then both P and M must be constant, which is contradictory to Hubble's law. The possibility of refuting this argument is also mentioned.
iidartzii
Well, if we consider the universe as a closed, isolated system, then the law of conservation of momentum should kick in.

P = MV

We know that Hubble's law states that the velocity of bodies on an astronomical scale is increasing and P is a constant, so that means M must be decreasing. However, the first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of matter/energy in the universe is also a constant.

Therefore, if the universe is a closed system, P and M must be constant, ergo V must be constant too and that's absurd to say by the means of Hubble's law. Can I be refuted?

If the universe is a closed isolated system, then p is the momentum of its centre of mass(no such thing actually) and v is the velocity of the CM which doesn't depend on the velocities of what constitute it.

## 1) What is mathematical evidence?

Mathematical evidence refers to using mathematical principles, equations, and calculations to support or prove a hypothesis or theory. It involves using logic and reasoning to draw conclusions about a particular phenomenon.

## 2) How does mathematical evidence support the idea of the universe being an open system?

Mathematical evidence can be used to analyze and model complex systems, such as the universe, and show that they are constantly changing and evolving. This supports the idea of the universe being an open system, as it is constantly receiving and exchanging energy and matter with its surroundings.

## 3) Can mathematical evidence prove that the universe is an open system?

No, mathematical evidence alone cannot prove that the universe is an open system. It can provide strong support for the idea, but it is not the only factor to consider. Other forms of evidence, such as observational data and experimental results, are also important in understanding and explaining the universe.

## 4) What are some examples of mathematical evidence for an open system universe?

Some examples of mathematical evidence for an open system universe include the laws of thermodynamics, which describe the exchange of energy between systems, and the equations used to model the expansion of the universe. These mathematical models show that the universe is constantly changing and interacting with its environment.

## 5) How does understanding the universe as an open system impact scientific research?

Understanding the universe as an open system allows scientists to better study and predict the behavior of complex systems. It also encourages a more holistic approach to research, considering the interconnectedness and interactions between different systems. This can lead to new discoveries and advancements in various fields, such as cosmology, biology, and ecology.

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