What is Open system: Definition and 26 Discussions

The open-field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages and lasted into the 20th century in Russia, Iran, and Turkey. Under the open-field system, each manor or village had two or three large fields, usually several hundred acres each, which were divided into many narrow strips of land. The strips or selions were cultivated by individuals or peasant families, often called tenants or serfs. The holdings of a manor also included woodland and pasture areas for common usage and fields belonging to the lord of the manor and the religious authorities, usually Roman Catholics in medieval Western Europe. The farmers customarily lived in individual houses in a nucleated village with a much larger manor house and church nearby. The open-field system necessitated co-operation among the inhabitants of the manor.
The Lord of the Manor, his officials, and a Manorial court administered the manor and exercised jurisdiction over the peasantry. The Lord levied rents and required the peasantry to work on his personal lands, called a demesne.In medieval times, little land was owned outright. Instead, generally the lord had rights given to him by the king, and the tenant rented land from the lord. Lords demanded rents and labour from the tenants, but the tenants had firm user rights to cropland and common land and those rights were passed down from generation to generation. A medieval lord could not evict a tenant nor hire labour to replace him without legal cause. Most tenants likewise were not free without penalty to depart the manor for other locations or occupations. The rise of capitalism and the concept of land as a commodity to be bought and sold led to the gradual demise of the open-field system. The open-field system was gradually replaced over several centuries by private ownership of land, especially after the 15th century in the process known as enclosure in England. France, Germany, and other northern European countries had systems similar to England, although open fields generally endured longer on the continent. Some elements of the open-field system were practised by early settlers in the New England region of the United States.

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  1. A

    Heat Capacity of a Van Der Waals' gas in an Open system

    In our class, we're using Wassermann's Thermal physics as textbook. I always try to solve all question which included in Text book. But sometime when I meet a problem that look like easy but actually hard, I'm so embarrassed. This problem do also. First, in the textbook grand potential for van...
  2. EastWindBreaks

    Do we assume the mixing chamber has an outlet?

    Homework Statement Hot and cold streams of a fluid are mixed in a rigid mixing chamber. The hot fluid flows into the chamber at a mass flow rate of 5 kg/s with an energy in the amount of 150 kJ/kg. The cold fluid flows into the chamber with a mass flow rate of 15 kg/s and carries energy in the...
  3. P

    Thermal equilibrium in open systems

    Is it possible for an open system to reach thermal equilibrium? why/why not?
  4. J

    Unsure Regarding Temperature Model for an Open System

    Hi guys, I am currently working on my master thesis. I am supposed to make a dynamic model for a gas system and have some trouble setting up the energy balance. I am a noob when it comes to uploading pictures, so I don't have a figure for this, but let's consider a general control volume (CV)...
  5. G

    I Open or closed Casimir system?

    If you had the Casimir effect pushing two plates together, would that be an open or closed system? And why? I haven't been able to find a satisfying answer/explanation to that.
  6. T

    How do I state 2nd law of thermodynamics for an open system

    Ecosystems are open systems, they receive solar energy and other materials from outside the ecosystem and migration of animals is also witnessed. I read Physics uptil class XII and have done a bit of research on google books and have come across these three books: 1.Towards a Thermodynamic...
  7. pac0master

    Calculating Half life Decay in an Open system

    [Question] So I was thinking about Physics for some time and for the sake of curiosity I've came with this problem: Let's say we have a liquid flowing into a system with infinite space. The flow is constant ( F ) The liquid decays over time with a half life ( λ ) We're looking for the Total...
  8. Thomas Eaton

    B Virtual Particles; Making the Universe an Open System?

    The question here is simple; would the existence of virtual particles make the universe an open system? And if not, why? I thank all who consider this question for their time and would love to hear an answer.
  9. Z

    A A discord in analysis of a closed vs. open system model

    Is there anywhere in physics textbooks , or anywhere else, a section on KINETICS OF ROTATING FLEXIBLE, CONSTRAINED BODY BY GRAVITY ( TURBINE ROTOR IN BEARINGS), NON-INVARIANT (Time -translation invariance by Noether’s theorem), WITH ECCENTRIC MASSES, TORQUE DRIVEN AT NON-CENTROIDAL AXIS...
  10. B

    Open System, Heat Transfer & Thermo I

    1. Homework Statement We want to heat up 200 liters of water in a bathtub from 15 ◦C to 30 ◦C. The temperature is increased by adding marble stones to the water. The initial temperature of the marble stones is 773, 15 K. Assume that the marble is rigid, with the heat capacity cm = 0.88 J ·K−1...
  11. G

    Is an adiabatic process possible for an open system?

    Hello all! I have a hard time about this one: Think of an adiabatic process (can be either reversible or irreversible - doesn't matter). dQ = 0. Assume only, mechanical work is done on/by the system. So by 1st law of thermodynamics, dU =dW. Now, everything is clear to me when I am dealing...
  12. B

    Understanding Vapor Pressure in Open Systems

    I learned that vapor pressure is defined in a closed system, but some questions ask me to consider vapor pressure in an open system. How is vapor pressure defined exactly? And where is this pressure acting against? Also why is it that at the boiling point, the vapor pressure and the atmospheric...
  13. A

    Thermodynamics, open system first law problem

    Homework Statement >A gas flows through a small orifice in a pipe as shown above. On the higher pressure side, the gas is at 1Mpa and temperature of 300K. The pressure reduces to 1kPa after it flows through the orifice. The equation of state for the gas is v=\frac{RT}{P}+10^{-6}T^2 If the...
  14. T

    Fluid pressure on an object in open system

    Hello everyone, I have a physics question on pressure exerted by a fluid onto an object (see attachment). I would like to know how I can calculate the total pressure exerted on an object in a vessel by flowing fluid (water) with an open outflow. It has been too long since I took college...
  15. A

    Thermo 1st Law open system question

    Homework Statement An insulated nozzle receives are at a negligible velocity at a pressure of 150kpa and temp of 25 degrees C. if the flow passing through the nozzle expands to 100kpa in an isentropic process, calculate the temperature and velocity of the air leaving the nozzle.The Attempt at a...
  16. gfd43tg

    Maxwells relations for an open system

    HelloI have learned about maxwells relations and can derive them. I noticed that we had made an assumption of a closed system. We just learns about chemical potential and the fundamental relations for an open system. I had a thought experiment that there may exist maxwells relations for an open...
  17. S

    1st Law of Thermodynamics (Open System)

    Homework Statement Is this equation correct for the 1st Law of Thermodynamics for an Open System (Control Volume): Q - W + min(h + 1/2(c^2) + gz)in - mout(h + 1/2(c^2) + gz)out = Δ(U 1/2(c^2) + gz). Homework Equations None really. The Attempt at a Solution This isn't so much an...
  18. X

    How can we accurately compare air flow data in an open system?

    Hi, I have a question relating to normalizing air flow data in an open system… The system comprises of a regulator feeding 2barg line pressure to a valve (controlling the downstream flow), a variable restriction, a second valve (normally open) and a flow meter. Pressure readings are taken...
  19. S

    Open System Carnot Efficiency

    Homework Statement The original is in German, but I will try my best to translate. A power generator uses the temperature difference between surface ocean temperature and sea bottom temperature (27C and 6C) to generate electricity. The power outage is 50kW at 10% of the Carnot efficiency...
  20. F

    Modeling air temperature and pressure in an open system (decompressing tank)

    I am trying to determine how to accurately model an open system which includes: A tank: Volume = 1320 gallons An exit pipe from tank: Diameter = 3 inches The tank is compressed from atmospheric conditions to a final pressure of 100 psig. Then the tank is allowed to decompress by opening a...
  21. R

    Thermodynamics, Open System Entropy Problem

    Homework Statement A thermally insulated piston cylinder device initially contains 0.2m^3, 0.8kg of air at 20 degrees Celcius, and the piston is free to move. Now air at 600kPa and 80 degrees Celcius is slowly applied to the device through a supply line until the volume increases by 50...
  22. I

    Is this not mathematical evidence that the universe is an open system?

    Well, if we consider the universe as a closed, isolated system, then the law of conservation of momentum should kick in. P = MV We know that Hubble's law states that the velocity of bodies on an astronomical scale is increasing and P is a constant, so that means M must be decreasing...
  23. P

    Thermodynamics: Open system: outlet but no inlet

    Hi There I'm wokring on a miniature steam car ~0.7kg. I've decided that I would like to investigate the feasibility of propelling the car with a steam jet. So I found a couple of equations that work on the velocity of the exhaust. Equation 1) De Laval nozzel equation for the velocity of the...
  24. T

    Need help with quantum open system

    Hello everyone, I am a student major in physical chemistry, but my PhD supervisor ask me to do some theoretical research in the field of quantum open system i.e. quantum transport. I feel it beyond my reach. I've learned that the this field belongs to non equilibrium quantum statistical...
  25. E

    Combined law for an open system

    Homework Statement I am confused about this solution. The question explicitly says that the systems are allowed energy exchange, so why is energy held fixed in the equation after "therefore"? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
  26. U

    Curious about the open system interconnect model

    I'm curious about the open system interconnect model. I was wondering which layers of the OSI model are both hardware and software related? How does the OSI model package the data for transmission? I don't believe that the OSI model is perfect, what do you think could improve it? Do all...