Which textbooks formulate Quantum Mechanics (or, for that matter, QFT) in Langrangian terms?
You can define the action of a QFT in terms of a Lagrangian, but there is no equivalent Lagrangian approach that works in QFT or QM. It's simply not how quantum theory works. You either have the path integral approach or the canonical (operator) approach.
If you just want to look up what the Lagrangians look like: pretty much any book on QFT will treat these.
There is a path integral formulation of Quantum Mechanics. It is not really a Lagrangian formulation of QM, but it is similar.
See here: http://www.ks.uiuc.edu/Services/Class/PHYS480/qm_PDF/chp2.pdf
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