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 Summary

I want to write a student article specially for those who don't have a background in nuclear physics. I've been suggested to share my basic understanding & ask if they're correct.
I would be grateful if anyone could explain where my mistakes are:
(Please note that diagrams are designed just to give a simple imagination of the article & make it more understandable; they do NOT correspond precise information.)
Mass – Energy Relationship:
According to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, when the energy of a body increases, so does its mass, and vice versa. If the difference in energy is indicated by ΔE and the difference in mass by Δm, these two quantities are related by his famous equation:
##ΔE=Δmc^2##
When 'c' is the velocity of light (##2.9979×10^8 m/s##).
Mass Defect:
The mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the individual masses of the free constituent nucleons, this 'missing mass' is known as the mass defect. So for a nucleus (X) with Z protons and N neutrons we can write:
##m_x, m_n ,m_p## the masses of a nucleus (X), free neutron and free proton
##m_x<Zm_p+Nm_n##
Mass Defect= ##Zm_p+Nm_nm_x##
As it has been written in the first part, nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy we need to add to a nucleus to separate all of its nucleons.
So for the binding energy of that nucleus (##B_x##) we could write:
##m_x+B_x=Zm_p+Nm_n##
##B_x=Zm_p+Nm_n–m_x##
And we can conclude that the binding energy of a nucleus corresponds/is its mass defect [by ##E=mc^2##].
Iron56 and nickel62 have the highest nuclear binding energy per nucleon; meaning that they have the least mass per nucleon. As a matter of fact 'more tightly bound means less massive.'
References:
According to Einstein’s special theory of relativity, when the energy of a body increases, so does its mass, and vice versa. If the difference in energy is indicated by ΔE and the difference in mass by Δm, these two quantities are related by his famous equation:
##ΔE=Δmc^2##
When 'c' is the velocity of light (##2.9979×10^8 m/s##).
Mass Defect:
The mass of an atomic nucleus is less than the sum of the individual masses of the free constituent nucleons, this 'missing mass' is known as the mass defect. So for a nucleus (X) with Z protons and N neutrons we can write:
##m_x, m_n ,m_p## the masses of a nucleus (X), free neutron and free proton
##m_x<Zm_p+Nm_n##
Mass Defect= ##Zm_p+Nm_nm_x##
As it has been written in the first part, nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy we need to add to a nucleus to separate all of its nucleons.
So for the binding energy of that nucleus (##B_x##) we could write:
##m_x+B_x=Zm_p+Nm_n##
##B_x=Zm_p+Nm_n–m_x##
And we can conclude that the binding energy of a nucleus corresponds/is its mass defect [by ##E=mc^2##].
Iron56 and nickel62 have the highest nuclear binding energy per nucleon; meaning that they have the least mass per nucleon. As a matter of fact 'more tightly bound means less massive.'
References:
Binding energy or Kinetic energy?
Summary: I always confuse Binding Energy with Released Energy in such processes. Which one comes from mass defect? For example in a DeuteriumTritium fusion two nuclei with lower binding energy converse to He4 with much higher binding energy (and a neutron). The released energy is 17.6 MeV...
www.physicsforums.com
460: MassEnergy Equivalence
This derivation of the massenergy equivalence equation is based on the analyses of an elementary photon emission event by two sets of inertial observers .
chem.libretexts.org
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