# Released Energy: Is my understanding correct?

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In summary, nuclear reactions can be classified as either exothermic or endothermic processes, depending on whether energy is released or needed. The energy in these reactions comes from the difference in initial and final masses or binding energies, which can be seen in Einstein's equation. This difference can be on a much larger scale in nuclear reactions compared to chemical reactions. The released or needed energy can then manifest as radiation or kinetic energy of nuclei.
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TL;DR Summary
I wanted to write a student article specially for those who don't have a background in nuclear physics. I've been suggested to share my basic understanding & ask if they're correct.
I would be grateful if anyone could explain where my mistakes are:
(Please note that diagrams are designed just to give a simple imagination of the article & make it more understandable; they do NOT correspond precise information.)
Exothermic process is a [nuclear] reaction in which energy is released, but for endothermic processes energy is needed. What does this released or needed energy come from?
Let's say we have the fusion shown in this picture:

##m_h, m_t, m_α, m_p, m_n## - masses of helium-3, tritium, helium-4, free proton, and free neutron
##E## - released/utilized energy

The illustrated fusion is:
##m_h+m_t=m_α+m_n+m_p+E##

Now we can write:
##m_h+m_t-m_α-m_n-m_p=E##
##M_1-M_2=\Delta m=E##
Therefore, in all chemical and nuclear reactions, released/utilized energy corresponds the difference in initial and final masses (in relation with Einstein's equation).

According to the definition of mass defect & binding energy:
##m_h=2m_p+m_n-B_h##
##m_t=m_p+2m_n-B_t##
##m_α=2m_p+2m_n-B_α##

So, for the reaction we can also write:
##(2m_p+m_n-B_h)+(m_p+2m_n-B_t)=(2m_p+2m_n-B_α)+m_n+m_p+E##
By cancelling out all the rest masses of free nucleons we would have:
##-B_h-B_t=-B_α+E##
##B_α -B_h-B_t =E##
##B_2-B_1=\Delta B=E##
Now, we can conclude that for many nuclear reactions (except ε, β+, β-) the released/utilized energy comes from the difference between initial and final binding energies.

Energy released in some nuclear reactions is on the order of a million times greater than in chemical reactions; because [the difference in] nuclear binding energy is much larger than [the difference in] electron binding energy.

Now let's throw them into the mix!
##M_1## / ##M_2## - total mass of reactants/products
##B_1## / ##B_2## - total binding energy of reactants/products
##M_1-M_2=B_2-B_1=E~
\begin{cases}
\mathsf {If }~ E>0 ⇒ \mathsf {Exothermic } ⇒ \mathsf {Released~Energy} =E \\
\mathsf {If }~ E<0 ⇒ \mathsf {Endothermic } ⇒ \mathsf {Needed~Energy } =-E
\end{cases}##
####
That energy then is released as [electromagnetic or particle] radiation or kinetic energy of nuclei.

That energy (E>0) then is released as [electromagnetic or particle] radiation or kinetic energy of nuclei.

References:
https://www.physicsforums.com/posts/6216782/

Last edited:

## 1. What is released energy?

Released energy is the energy that is released or given off during a physical or chemical process. It can take many forms, such as heat, light, sound, or motion.

## 2. How is energy released?

Energy is released through various processes, such as combustion, nuclear reactions, and chemical reactions. In these processes, the bonds between atoms or molecules are broken, releasing energy in the form of heat or light.

## 3. Is all energy released the same?

No, the type and amount of energy released depend on the specific process and the materials involved. For example, the energy released from a chemical reaction will be different from the energy released from a nuclear reaction.

## 4. Can energy be released without a reaction?

Yes, energy can also be released through physical processes such as friction, where the movement of objects against each other produces heat energy.

## 5. How is released energy used?

Released energy is used in various ways, such as powering machines, generating electricity, and providing heat and light. It is essential for many everyday activities and is a crucial aspect of our daily lives.

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