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Abramsky et al. 2011, The Sheaf-Theoretic Structure Of Non-Locality and Contextuality

Abramsky et al. 2015, Contextuality, Cohomology and ParadoxAbstract said:We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting which generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples --- due to Bell, Hardy, and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively --- occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for Kochen-Specker type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the `parity proofs' commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product.

Carù 2018, Towards a complete cohomology invariant for non-locality and contextualityAbstract said:Contextuality is a key feature of quantum mechanics that provides an important non-classical resource for quantum information and computation. Abramsky and Brandenburger used sheaf theory to give a general treatment of contextuality in quantum theory [New Journal of Physics 13 (2011) 113036]. However, contextual phenomena are found in other fields as well, for example database theory. In this paper, we shall develop this unified view of contextuality. We provide two main contributions: firstly, we expose a remarkable connection between contexuality and logical paradoxes; secondly, we show that an important class of contextuality arguments has a topological origin. More specifically, we show that "All-vs-Nothing" proofs of contextuality are witnessed by cohomological obstructions.

First, it must be understood that non-locality is a form of (measurement) contextuality. The key point is then that contextuality is equivalent to the non-existence of global sections for a family of probability distributions.Abstract said:The sheaf theoretic description of non-locality and contextuality by Abramsky and Brandenburger sets the ground for a topological study of these peculiar features of quantum mechanics. This viewpoint has been recently developed thanks to sheaf cohomology, which provides a sufficient condition for contextuality of empirical models in quantum mechanics and beyond. Subsequently, a number of studies proposed methods to detect contextuality based on different cohomology theories. However, none of these cohomological descriptions succeeds in giving a full invariant for contextuality applicable to concrete examples. In the present work, we introduce a cohomology invariant for possibilistic and strong contextuality which is applicable to the vast majority of empirical models.

Secondly, using this sheaf theoretic framework, Feynman's interpretation that negative probability characterizes QM is incorrect; negative probability characterizes all models with no-signalling.

Lastly, and perhaps most surprisingly, is that the incompatibility of measurements - which in QM is usually a postulate taken to be specific to the non-commuting observables formalism - can be shown to be derived from a theory-independent structural impossibility result of certain families of empirical distributions.