# Nuclear Reaction for Alpha Particle Bombardment

• ghulamali
In summary: Alpha particles have a very high kinetic energy. This is what allows them to propel themselves through the air and cause damage to cells. In order to calculate the minimum energy of an alpha particle necessary to cause this reaction to occur, we need to know the masses of the nitrogen, oxygen, and proton. The mass of the alpha particle is 0.66466*10^-26 kg. So to achieve the reaction, we need an alpha particle with a mass that is at least 0.66466*10^-26 kg more than the nitrogen nucleus.

#### ghulamali

complete data of question:
a nitrogen nucleus N(A=14,Z=7) bombared with an alpha particle of a certain energy transmutes to an oxygen nucleus(A=17,Z=8) and a proton
a:write a equation for this nuclear reaction
b:find the minimum energy of alpha particle to make this reactin occur
(mass of nitrogen=2.32530*10^-26kg,mass of oxygen=2.82282*10^-26kg,mass of proton=0.16735*10^-26kg and mass of alpha particle=0.66466*10^-26kg)
attempt on this questin:
i have written the reaction
in second part we have to calculate mas defect for finding its energy by e=mc^2
in fission reaction i learned that mass of reaction will always be greater than product,but here by calculation mass of product is greater ,why is this so.and please tell me why energy equivalent to mass defect is always alpha particle energy why not other elements like nitrogen and oxygen
answer of this question is1.89*10^-13j,i have calculated this answer but that comes in negative as i subtracted reactants minus product

In a fission reaction some rest mass energy is converted to kinetic energy. The products of the reaction get the kinetic energy.
In this reaction the alpha particle starts with a large amount of kinetic energy which is then used to create the extra mass of the products. Because we start with large amounts of KE you need to subtract the mass of the reactants from the products to find the 'mass defect'.
Remember there isn't really a mass defect. We get the mass defect because we use rest mass values. The mass of the moving alpha particle is higher than its rest mass value.
The nitrogen and oxygen atom are assumed to have very little KE. We do not normally find atoms moving at very high energys. At room temperature their velocity due to temperature is about 500 m/s.
It is the high energy of the alpha particle which makes it an ionising radiation particle, distinguishing it from just an ionised helium atom. The same is true of the difference between beta radiation and electrons. 1.89*10^-13 j may not sound high but it is enough to make the alpha particle move at nearly 8 million m/s.

thank you,hope u will help me in future as well

ghulamali said:
complete data of question:
a nitrogen nucleus N(A=14,Z=7) bombared with an alpha particle of a certain energy transmutes to an oxygen nucleus(A=17,Z=8) and a proton
a:write a equation for this nuclear reaction
b:find the minimum energy of alpha particle to make this reactin occur
(mass of nitrogen=2.32530*10^-26kg,mass of oxygen=2.82282*10^-26kg,mass of proton=0.16735*10^-26kg and mass of alpha particle=0.66466*10^-26kg)
attempt on this questin:
i have written the reaction
in second part we have to calculate mas defect for finding its energy by e=mc^2
in fission reaction i learned that mass of reaction will always be greater than product,but here by calculation mass of product is greater ,why is this so.and please tell me why energy equivalent to mass defect is always alpha particle energy why not other elements like nitrogen and oxygen
answer of this question is1.89*10^-13j,i have calculated this answer but that comes in negative as i subtracted reactants minus product
It is not true that in a fission event the mass of the original nucleus will always be greater than the masses of the products. In fact, in the fission of a U nucleus, this is not the case. The masses of the products are less than the mass of the original nucleus. If it were otherwise, energy would not be released.

Whether energy is released in any nuclear reaction is determined by the difference in total nuclear binding energies of the original nuclei compared to the total nuclear binding energies of the products.

Since these binding energies indicate the amount of energy required to break all the nuclear bonds, the greater the binding energies, the lower the mass per nucleon. If the total nuclear binding energies of the products is greater than the total nuclear binding energies of the original nuclei, there is a net release of energy.

AM

## 1. What is a nuclear reaction for alpha particle bombardment?

A nuclear reaction for alpha particle bombardment is a process in which alpha particles (helium nuclei) are directed at a target nucleus, causing it to undergo a nuclear reaction. This reaction can result in the formation of new elements or the release of energy.

## 2. How is this type of nuclear reaction used in scientific research?

Nuclear reactions for alpha particle bombardment are commonly used in scientific research to study the properties of different elements and to create new, unstable elements. They can also be used to produce energy for power generation or to create radioactive isotopes for medical and industrial purposes.

## 3. What are the safety considerations for conducting a nuclear reaction for alpha particle bombardment?

The main safety consideration for this type of experiment is radiation exposure. Adequate shielding and safety protocols must be in place to protect researchers and the environment from potential radiation hazards. It is also important to carefully control the amount and type of radioactive material used in the reaction.

## 4. What are the potential risks associated with a nuclear reaction for alpha particle bombardment?

The main risks associated with this type of reaction are radiation exposure and the potential release of radioactive materials. If not properly controlled, these materials can pose a health hazard to humans and the environment. There is also a risk of accidents or equipment failures, which could result in the release of harmful radiation.

## 5. How do scientists control and manipulate nuclear reactions for alpha particle bombardment?

Scientists use various methods to control and manipulate nuclear reactions for alpha particle bombardment, such as adjusting the energy and direction of the alpha particles, using different target nuclei, and controlling the reaction environment. Advanced techniques, such as particle accelerators, are also used to produce more precise and controlled reactions.

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