What is Nuclear: Definition and 993 Discussions

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions to produce electricity. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear power plants. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators in some space probes such as Voyager 2. Generating electricity from fusion power remains the focus of international research.
Civilian nuclear power supplied 2,586 terawatt hours (TWh) of electricity in 2019, equivalent to about 10% of global electricity generation, and was the second-largest low-carbon power source after hydroelectricity. As of January 2021, there are 442 civilian fission reactors in the world, with a combined electrical capacity of 392 gigawatt (GW). There are also 53 nuclear power reactors under construction and 98 reactors planned, with a combined capacity of 60 GW and 103 GW, respectively. The United States has the largest fleet of nuclear reactors, generating over 800 TWh zero-emissions electricity per year with an average capacity factor of 92%. Most reactors under construction are generation III reactors in Asia.
Nuclear power has one of the lowest levels of fatalities per unit of energy generated compared to other energy sources. Coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydroelectricity each have caused more fatalities per unit of energy due to air pollution and accidents. Since its commercialization in the 1970s, nuclear power has prevented about 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and the emission of about 64 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent that would have otherwise resulted from the burning of fossil fuels.
Accidents in nuclear power plants include the Chernobyl disaster in the Soviet Union in 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan in 2011, and the more contained Three Mile Island accident in the United States in 1979.
There is a debate about nuclear power. Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy, contend that nuclear power is a safe, sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions. Nuclear power opponents, such as Greenpeace and NIRS, contend that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment.

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  1. T

    What does lambda in nuclear decay mean if it is big?

    I am thinking about lambda, the nuclear decay constant and what it actually means. I have built spreadsheet models looking at decay using lambda to determine the decay for each time period and then comparing the number left to that determined by using e ˆ- lamda x time. These are my...
  2. ohwilleke

    B Any big HEP conferences coming up in 2024?

    Are there any big HEP conferences (with papers or podcasts available online to non-participants) coming up soon?
  3. S

    Why is the Energy Released in Nuclear Decay Equal to the Change in Binding Energies?

    If we consider a nuclear decay in which element X decays into Y and an alpha particle, we can see that the total energy released is ##c^2(-m(\alpha) -m(y) + m(x))##. If we replace ##m(alpha)## with ##s(alpha) - be(\alpha)/c^2##, and similarly for the other particles, X and Y, we can see that...
  4. gleem

    New Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactor Approved by NRC

    A California company Kairos has received a permit to build a non power producing salt cooled nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge Tennessee.The reactor is considered safer since it uses a low-pressure mixture of molten fluoride salts of Lithium and Beryllium called FliBe. Molten salt reactors are not...
  5. S

    I Conductors and circuits for nuclear force

    Is it possible to create something like a circuit powered by the strong nuclear force rather than the electromotive force of a battery? If so, what would be examples of some conductors and resistors that could go in such a circuit?
  6. bhobba

    Can Any Country Achieve Net Zero Without Nuclear?

    If you are lucky enough to have copious amounts of hydropower, you may be able to. But aside from that, I can't see how it can be done. In Australia, we have a policy of net zero by 2050, but it is beyond me how you can do it without nuclear. However, Australia has banned nuclear...
  7. physics32123

    Physics Realistic to switch from atomic to nuclear or high-energy theory?

    Is it realistic to switch from atomic theory to nuclear or high energy theory?
  8. Mathiasrd

    Need help ordering parts for a nuclear fusion reactor

    Sorry for bad english, does anyone know where I can purchase a spherical vacuum chamber made from metal, that preferably ships internationally ?
  9. gmax137

    NuScale, UAMPS terminate small modular reactor project in Idaho

    https://www.utilitydive.com/news/nuscale-uamps-terminate-small-modular-nuclear-reactor-smr-project-idaho/699281/ Published Nov. 9, 2023
  10. N

    A Complete list of known fissionable materials?

    I am looking but I could not find the complete list of fissionable and fissile isotopes. Do you know where I could look?
  11. Anisur Rahman

    Question about Source Probability in MCNP

    Here, SP stands for source probability. But probability needs to be normalized. Here values in SP3, SP4 are larger than 1, It means that SP is not ordinary probability here. But what actually SP represent here?
  12. T

    Need Recommendations for Nuclear Reaction Modelling Software

    Working on a project where I need to model nuclear reactions with different fuel pellet shapes. Does anyone have recommendations for software that's good for this? Any advice or experiences are also welcome!
  13. cormsby

    A Looking for info on the Betatron nuclear trigger from the early 1950s

    A colleague (PhD Physics, no weapons experience) asked me (MA Physics, with DoD work experience) about the Betatron nuclear trigger in the early Fifties. I know it used a toroidal accelerator to produce an electron beam impacting a Beryllium target, but I don't remember (and cannot find) any...
  14. Vanadium 50

    I LHC High L pp run ends for 2023

    A bellows failed at the LHC near IP8 (LHCb). It has been replaced and the sector is cooling. Beam is expected on or near September 11. There will not be enough time to return to high luminosity pp running, so the run plan for the rest of the year is low luminosity special pp running and heavy...
  15. S

    MCNP: How to display particles outside the source?

    Particle display in visual editor of mcnp input file only shows particles inside source, I am interested to see particle path towards tally region. Plz guide thanks
  16. Graham87

    Troubleshooting nuclear decay, electron binding energies, internal contributions

    How do you know which binding energy shell to use? In the solution it uses K and L2. Why specifically L2 and not L3 or L1 for example? And what should I do with the information to omit electrons lower than 20kev? I initially thought that meant to omit the electron binding energies lower than...
  17. B

    I How to depict a nuclear magnetic octupole

    Hello! I am not sure if this is the best place for this question, but I want to make a simple illustrative drawing (for a presentation given to people both with and without physics knowledge) of a nuclear magnetic octupole moment. For example for a magnetic dipole I can use a magnet as a...
  18. Graham87

    Troubleshooting Nuclear Reactions: Decay, Gamma Rays & More

    The problem comes with solutions. However, I dont get the 3 steps in the solutions. Why do they calculate decay for 120min in step 3? And why is only the daughter nuclide relevant and no granddaughter? There might be something lacking in my knowledge about nuclear reactions. Also, I don't know...
  19. .Scott

    B Canadian Antineutrino Detector detects Nuclear Power Plants from 240km

    The SNO+ Experiment in Canada is still in development, but analysis of early antineutrino detections as published in Physics Review Letters and as referenced in the SNO+ results page are believed to be from appear to be the from Ontario reactors 240Km away.
  20. K

    I need help with Nuclear reaction equations

    En=0 Ek(B)=0 Q=Ek3(α)+Ek4(Li) --Q=Ek3(1+m3/m4) (1) p3=p4 /^2 -- 2*m3*Ek3=2*m4*Ek4 --- Ek4=m3/m4 * Ek3 (2) (1) and (2) Ek4= m3/(m3+m4) * Q, but I'm not sure how to find m3 or m4 and if this is true
  21. emilmammadzada

    Radionuclides used in nuclear medicine

    From which site and article can I find a table or information about alpha emitting radionuclides used in nuclear medicine?
  22. patric44

    Definition of angular frequency in nuclear structure

    Hi all I am a little bit confused about the definition of angular frequency in the context of nuclear rotation, some times its defined in the regular way as $$ E=\hbar \omega $$ and other time from the rigid rotor formula $$ E=\frac{\hbar^{2}}{2I} J(J+1) $$ where ##I## is the moment of inertia...
  23. M

    A Nuclear moments in molecular spectroscopy

    Hello! I saw many paper extracting the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the nuclei by performing RF/microwave spectroscopy on the rotational levels of a molecule. However, I can't seem to find paper measuring higher order moments. For example, the magnetic octupole moment has...
  24. emilmammadzada

    FRENDY nuclear code -- Where to download it? (for ubuntu 22.04)

    I want to compare njoy2016 and frendy codes.If anyone is using frendy nuclear, I wanted to get information about how to download it for ubuntu 22.04 version?
  25. Astronuc

    Modeling and Simulation in Nuclear Energy

    Modeling and simulation, or computational physics/chemistry, is a large and important part of engineering. In nuclear energy, there are applications of finite element methods (and occasionally finite different or finite volume depending on the problem) applied to nuclear plants, nuclear...
  26. L

    Are spent nuclear fuel rods radioactive?

    Are spent fuel rods radioactive and are the spent fuel rods cooling pools discharging radioactive water (tritium) into the environment?
  27. mark_bose

    Searching for a single and complete resource about nuclear fuels

    Hello, I am looking for a comprehensive resource (paper, book or any kind of document) that contains the most relevant properties of most nuclear fuels. To be more specific, the information i am looking for are thermophysical properties, chemical compatibility with other materials and...
  28. M

    Cylindrical and Symmetrical Nuclear Fusion Reactor

    Hello ! I would like to consult you about this cylindrical nuclear reactor model that I have been thinking of with the idea of reducing the friction of the plasmas with the walls of the Toroidal nuclear fusion reactors that causes the plasma temperature to drop and the nuclear reactions to stop...
  29. emilmammadzada

    Nuclear Engineering MCNP5

    How can I make a sample code or a simulation about mcnp5 charged-particle energy-loss straggling?How can I find sample examples?
  30. thewowsignal

    Nuclear fusion and anti-nuclear technology

    I want to start a serious discussion here about our future on this small planet. This thread is especially dedicated to those of you, who are enthusiastic about atomic energy and energy crisis.
  31. Marioweee

    Nuclear shell model of double magic nucleus 132Sn

    The independent particle energies for protons and neutrons around the exotic doubly magic core 132Sn are shown in the figure below, where π refers to protons and ν to neutrons. Using the nuclear shell model and using this figure as a guide, answer to the following questions: a)Estimate Jπ...
  32. M

    Would wearing sunscreen help during a nuclear disaster/attack?

    So as I understand it, there are five types of radiation: alpha particles, beta particles, sub-red light, visible light, and above-violet light. Sub-red light is basically like Superman's heat vision, while above-violet light includes UV light like the UV-A and UV-B that sunscreen protects you...
  33. T

    Small yield of tactical nuclear weapons

    Uranium fission bombs have explosive power ofabout 10 000 tons of TNT. I understand that you can't make a uranium bomb with explosive power of 5 megatons of TNT brcause of the critical mass of U-235. Similarly you can't make an atomic fission weapon with explosive power of 10 tons of TNT...
  34. DTMsurf

    Nuclear Energy reading material

    Summary: I am looking for suggestions on an informative read surrounding nuclear energy I am a junior year physics student at UCSB looking to go to grad school for nuclear physics and eventually work with nuclear energy. My curriculum at UCSB does not offer any explicit classes surrounding...
  35. L

    Looking for Nuclear Physics Research Problems

    Homework Statement:: nuclear/atomic physics research problem Relevant Equations:: research problem please Hi all Anyone who can help me to get a research problems based on advanced nuclear physics please... Thank you all
  36. jedishrfu

    Great Sequence of Video Documentaries on Nuclear Disasters

    Youtuber Kyle Hill has created a great sequence of videos on nuclear disasters around the world: They include: - THERAC-25 Medical Device disaster where cancer outpatients received doses many times greater than what the doctors prescribed - The Demon Core: fissile material that scientists...
  37. hilbert2

    Medical Natural compounds for radiation protection

    The "sleep hormone" melatonin, sold at health supplement stores, has been found to prevent radiation sickness from ionizing radiation: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30073934/ There are also some other references for this findable with a Google search. But you don't want to be on melatonin...
  38. lee6853

    MCNP and simple nuclear physics

    Hi guys! I'm a master's student majoring in nuclear engineering in graduate school. I have a few questions while doing research, so I'm writing this here. My research is simple. We conduct neutron analysis to convert a research reactor using highly enriched uranium into a low enriched uranium...
  39. kyphysics

    Nuclear Fusion Breakthrough....What Does This Mean?

    Nuclear Fusion Breakthrough Confirmed: California Team Achieved Ignition BY JESS THOMSON ON 8/12/22 AT 9:20 AM EDT https://www.newsweek.com/nuclear-fusion-energy-milestone-ignition-confirmed-california-1733238 For those of us not literate in the field, how significant is this and what are the...
  40. D

    Nuclear fusion energy calculations

    Me again! For a sci-fi story I'm working on, I've created a sci-fi technology called an Aneutronic Triple Alpha Fusion Reactor. It works via aneutronic fusion, in this case, fusing Deuterium with Helium 3, but it also mimics the triple alpha process found within stars to maximise fuel use...
  41. AlexanderReed

    Where to find detailed control panel pictures of nuclear plants?

    Hello, I would like to know where I can find detailed control panels pictures of nuclear plants. Not necessarily the complete control room but the main panels. I need to be able to read switches, alarms lights, etc... Have a nice day! Thanks
  42. G

    Engineering Career advice for a nuclear engineering graduate

    Hi everyone, I'm from an Asian country, and graduated with M.Sc. degree in nuclear power engineering last year from a university in Russia. Since then, I have been looking for jobs related to nuclear engineering but no luck up till now. Seeing that nuclear energy is getting trendy now in...
  43. E

    B Can nuclear bomb(s) change trajectory of small black hole?

    A 4 ft diameter black hole (1.5 to 2 times the mass of Saturn) is headed toward Earth. Will Earth be able to defend itself using missiles with nuclear bombs? How to calculate such a problem?
  44. Bertin

    I Nuclear Physics: Yearly Time Measurement

    Halves-lives and average lifetimes, when studying nuclear decay, are often expressed in years even though years are not standarized, at least in SI (as far as I know). Borrowing the convention from astronomy and astrophysics, I usually take 1 \mathrm{yr} to be equal to 365.25 days of 86400...
  45. NewPhysi

    I Nuclear Fission of Uranium-235

    I'm learning about nuclear fission for fun, well based on my research, 82% of the time that uranium-235 absorbs a neutron it will fission, the uranium-235 will briefly turn into an excited uranium-236 and after that, it will split, the other 18% of the time it will just emit radiation and...
  46. Dave Gungan

    B How many nuclear weapons are needed to make a wormhole?

    Hi guys! After many years of lurking quietly I finally have a question that I'd like to know, please. I'd like to know how much energy is needed to make a wormhole in terms of our current nuclear weapons, or how much mass is needed to turn into pure energy, maybe via antimatter annihilation...
  47. A

    What are the potential consequences of a nuclear war between Russia and Ukraine?

    good morning gentlemen, the Russia - Ukraine war really scares me, in case of nuclear disaster, with Putin's missiles, what are the worst damages? and which nations are most in danger?
  48. T

    B Why can't nuclear reactions burn the atmosphere

    When the US first developed nuclear weapons against the Nazis and Japan, their primary concern was whether the nuclear reactions can trigger the atmospheric nitrogen to fuse and burn the whole atmosphere. However this claim was instantly debunked by physicists. Their reasoning is that in order...