Hello! I was wondering why, when calculating a formal charge, you actually use that formula of (valence electrons in ground state) - lone electrons after bonding - 1/2(bonded electrons) Lets take H2O. H - O - H The O has 6-4-2 = 0 formal charge. However, the O originally had 6 electrons, and now it has 8, so shouldn't that mean it has a charge of -2 because it has 2 more electrons than before. Also, when that happens, doesn't that mean the number of electrons doesn't match with the number of protons, meaning the atom is now unstable? I would appreciate it if anyone could help to clear this doubt.