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Recent Noteworthy Physics Papers

  1. Jul 30, 2012 #151

    ZapperZ

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    J.R. Williams et al., "Unconventional Josephson Effect in Hybrid Superconductor-Topological Insulator Devices", Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 056803 (2012)

    Abstract: We report on transport properties of Josephson junctions in hybrid superconducting-topological insulator devices, which show two striking departures from the common Josephson junction behavior: a characteristic energy that scales inversely with the width of the junction, and a low characteristic magnetic field for suppressing supercurrent. To explain these effects, we propose a phenomenological model which expands on the existing theory for topological insulator Josephson junctions.

    Also see a review of this work at APS Physics where you will have a free download to the paper.

    Zz.
     
  2. Aug 9, 2012 #152

    ZapperZ

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    J. Yin et al., "Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels" Nature v.488, p.185 (2012).

    Abstract: Transferring an unknown quantum state over arbitrary distances is essential for large-scale quantum communication and distributed quantum networks. It can be achieved with the help of long-distance quantum teleportation1, 2 and entanglement distribution. The latter is also important for fundamental tests of the laws of quantum mechanics3, 4. Although quantum teleportation5, 6 and entanglement distribution7, 8, 9 over moderate distances have been realized using optical fibre links, the huge photon loss and decoherence in fibres necessitate the use of quantum repeaters10 for larger distances. However, the practical realization of quantum repeaters remains experimentally challenging11. Free-space channels, first used for quantum key distribution12, 13, offer a more promising approach because photon loss and decoherence are almost negligible in the atmosphere. Furthermore, by using satellites, ultra-long-distance quantum communication and tests of quantum foundations could be achieved on a global scale. Previous experiments have achieved free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over distances of 600 metres (ref. 14) and 13 kilometres (ref. 15), and transfer of triggered single photons over a 144-kilometre one-link free-space channel16. Most recently, following a modified scheme17, free-space quantum teleportation over 16 kilometres was demonstrated18 with a single pair of entangled photons. Here we report quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a 97-kilometre one-link free-space channel with multi-photon entanglement. An average fidelity of 80.4 ± 0.9 per cent is achieved for six distinct states. Furthermore, we demonstrate entanglement distribution over a two-link channel, in which the entangled photons are separated by 101.8 kilometres. Violation of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt inequality4 is observed without the locality loophole. Besides being of fundamental interest, our results represent an important step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high-frequency and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing and tracking technique developed in our experiment can be directly used for future satellite-based quantum communication and large-scale tests of quantum foundations.

    Zz.
     
  3. Oct 13, 2012 #153
    J. M. Hill and B. J. Cox, "Einstein's special relativity beyond the speed of light" Proc. R. Soc. A published ahead of print October 3, 2012, (2012)

    Abstract: We propose here two new transformations between inertial frames that apply for relative velocities greater than the speed of light, and that are complementary to the Lorentz transformation, giving rise to the Einstein special theory of relativity that applies to relative velocities less than the speed of light. The new transformations arise from the same mathematical framework as the Lorentz transformation, displaying singular behaviour when the relative velocity approaches the speed of light and generating the same addition law for velocities, but, most importantly, do not involve the need to introduce imaginary masses or complicated physics to provide well-defined expressions. Making use of the dependence on relative velocity of the Lorentz transformation, the paper provides an elementary derivation of the new transformations between inertial frames for relative velocities v in excess of the speed of light c, and further we suggest two possible criteria from which one might infer one set of transformations as physically more likely than the other. If the energy–momentum equations are to be invariant under the new transformations, then the mass and energy are given, respectively, by the formulae [itex]m=(p_\infty/c)[(v/c)^2-1]^{-1/2}[/itex] and [itex]\mathcal{E}=mc^2[/itex] where [itex]p_\infty[/itex] denotes the limiting momentum for infinite relative velocity. If, however, the requirement of invariance is removed, then we may propose new mass and energy equations, and an example having finite non-zero mass in the limit of infinite relative velocity is given. In this highly controversial topic, our particular purpose is not to enter into the merits of existing theories, but rather to present a succinct and carefully reasoned account of a new aspect of Einstein's theory of special relativity, which properly allows for faster than light motion.

    I'll post the full citation when it officially gets published.
     
  4. Oct 22, 2012 #154

    ZapperZ

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    K. Borozdin et al., "Cosmic Ray Radiography of the Damaged Cores of the Fukushima Reactors" Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 152501 (2012).

    Abstract: The passage of muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and nuclei. The interaction with the electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping of the muons. The interaction with nuclei leads to angle “diffusion.” Two muon-imaging methods that use flux attenuation and multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are being studied as tools for diagnosing the damaged cores of the Fukushima reactors. Here, we compare these two methods. We conclude that the scattering method can provide detailed information about the core. Attenuation has low contrast and little sensitivity to the core.

    Review of this work can be found here. You may also obtain a free copy of the paper at that link since it is published under a Creative Commons license.

    Zz.
     
  5. Oct 24, 2012 #155

    ZapperZ

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    C. Zu et al.,“State-Independent Experimental Test of Quantum Contextuality in an Indivisible System” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 150401 (2012).

    Abstract: We report the first state-independent experimental test of quantum contextuality on a single photonic qutrit (three-dimensional system), based on a recent theoretical proposal [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 030402 (2012)]. Our experiment spotlights quantum contextuality in its most basic form, in a way that is independent of either the state or the tensor product structure of the system.

    Read a review of this work here. The link also provides a free copy of the actual paper.

    Zz.
     
  6. Dec 28, 2012 #156

    Cthugha

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    Paula Mellado, Andres Concha, and L. Mahadevan,“Macroscopic Magnetic Frustration” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 257203 (2012).

    Abstract: Although geometrical frustration transcends scale, it has primarily been evoked in the micro- and mesoscopic realm to characterize such phases as spin ice, liquids, and glasses and to explain the behavior of such materials as multiferroics, high-temperature superconductors, colloids, and copolymers. Here we introduce a system of macroscopic ferromagnetic rotors arranged in a planar lattice capable of out-of-plane movement that exhibit the characteristic honeycomb spin ice rules studied and seen so far only in its mesoscopic manifestation. We find that a polarized initial state of this system settles into the honeycomb spin ice phase with relaxation on multiple time scales. We explain this relaxation process using a minimal classical mechanical model that includes Coulombic interactions between magnetic charges located at the ends of the magnets and viscous dissipation at the hinges. Our study shows how macroscopic frustration arises in a purely classical setting that is amenable to experiment, easy manipulation, theory, and computation, and shows phenomena that are not visible in their microscopic counterparts.

    A review of this work can be found here. This is a very cute experiment. These guys just created a triangular lattice composed of 352 macroscopic magnets and simulated a simplified version of spin ice that way. Also check the supplementary material. It contains a nice video of the magnet system developing towards a steady state. Setting up that experiment must have been lots of fun.
     
  7. Apr 17, 2013 #157

    Cthugha

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    M. Giustina et al., "Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption" Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12012. (advance online publication) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12012.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20130418

    Abstract: The violation of a Bell inequality is an experimental observation that forces the abandonment of a local realistic viewpoint—namely, one in which physical properties are (probabilistically) defined before and independently of measurement, and in which no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light1, 2. All such experimental violations require additional assumptions depending on their specific construction, making them vulnerable to so-called loopholes. Here we use entangled photons to violate a Bell inequality while closing the fair-sampling loophole, that is, without assuming that the sample of measured photons accurately represents the entire ensemble3. To do this, we use the Eberhard form of Bell’s inequality, which is not vulnerable to the fair-sampling assumption and which allows a lower collection efficiency than other forms4. Technical improvements of the photon source5, 6 and high-efficiency transition-edge sensors7 were crucial for achieving a sufficiently high collection efficiency. Our experiment makes the photon the first physical system for which each of the main loopholes has been closed, albeit in different experiments.
     
  8. May 20, 2013 #158

    ZapperZ

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    A. S. Stodolna et al.,"Hydrogen Atoms under Magnification: Direct Observation of the Nodal Structure of Stark States"

    Abstract: To describe the microscopic properties of matter, quantum mechanics uses wave functions, whose structure and time dependence is governed by the Schrödinger equation. In atoms the charge distributions described by the wave function are rarely observed. The hydrogen atom is unique, since it only has one electron and, in a dc electric field, the Stark Hamiltonian is exactly separable in terms of parabolic coordinates (η, ξ, φ). As a result, the microscopic wave function along the ξ coordinate that exists in the vicinity of the atom, and the projection of the continuum wave function measured at a macroscopic distance, share the same nodal structure. In this Letter, we report photoionization microscopy experiments where this nodal structure is directly observed. The experiments provide a validation of theoretical predictions that have been made over the last three decades.

    A synopsis of the work can be found here, which also has a link for free access to the actual paper.

    Zz.
     
  9. Jul 24, 2013 #159

    ZapperZ

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    J Heeck, "How Stable is the Photon?", Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 021801 (2013).

    Abstract: Yes, the photon. While a nonzero photon mass has been under experimental and theoretical study for years, the possible implication of a finite photon lifetime lacks discussion. The tight experimental upper bound of the photon mass restricts the kinematically allowed final states of photon decay to the lightest neutrino and/or particles beyond the standard model. We discuss the modifications of the well-measured cosmic microwave background spectrum of free streaming photons due to photon mass and lifetime and obtain model-independent constraints on both parameters—most importantly a lower direct bound of 3 yr on the photon lifetime, should the photon mass be at its conservative upper limit. In that case, the lifetime of microwave photons will be time-dilated by a factor order 10^15.

    You may read a synopsis of this work at the APS Physics and report on it at Physics World.

    Zz.
     
  10. Sep 26, 2013 #160
    O. Firstenberg et al., "Attractive photons in a quantum nonlinear medium" Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12512. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12512.html

    Abstract: The fundamental properties of light derive from its constituent particles—massless quanta (photons) that do not interact with one another. However, it has long been known that the realization of coherent interactions between individual photons, akin to those associated with conventional massive particles, could enable a wide variety of novel scientific and engineering applications. Here we demonstrate a quantum nonlinear medium inside which individual photons travel as massive particles with strong mutual attraction, such that the propagation of photon pairs is dominated by a two-photon bound state. We achieve this through dispersive coupling of light to strongly interacting atoms in highly excited Rydberg states. We measure the dynamical evolution of the two-photon wavefunction using time-resolved quantum state tomography, and demonstrate a conditional phase shift exceeding one radian, resulting in polarization-entangled photon pairs. Particular applications of this technique include all-optical switching, deterministic photonic quantum logic and the generation of strongly correlated states of light.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 6, 2017
  11. Oct 18, 2013 #161

    ZapperZ

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    A. D. Wissner-Gross and C. E. Freer, "Causal Entropic Forces", Phys. Rev. Lett. v.110, p.168702 (2013).

    Abstract: Recent advances in fields ranging from cosmology to computer science have hinted at a possible deep connection between intelligence and entropy maximization, but no formal physical relationship between them has yet been established. Here, we explicitly propose a first step toward such a relationship in the form of a causal generalization of entropic forces that we find can cause two defining behaviors of the human “cognitive niche”—tool use and social cooperation—to spontaneously emerge in simple physical systems. Our results suggest a potentially general thermodynamic model of adaptive behavior as a nonequilibrium process in open systems.

    Read the synopsis in APS Physics.

    Zz.
     
  12. Nov 15, 2013 #162

    DennisN

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    Andreas Reiserer, Stephan Ritter, Gerhard Rempe
    Nondestructive Detection of an Optical Photon
    Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1246164 (2013)
    http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early/2013/11/13/science.1246164
    Paper on arxiv: http://arxiv-web3.library.cornell.edu/abs/1311.3625

    Abstract:
    All optical detectors to date annihilate photons upon detection, thus excluding repeated measurements. Here, we demonstrate a robust photon detection scheme which does not rely on absorption. Instead, an incoming photon is reflected off an optical resonator containing a single atom prepared in a superposition of two states. The reflection toggles the superposition phase which is then measured to trace the photon. Characterizing the device with faint laser pulses, a single-photon detection efficiency of 74% and a survival probability of 66% is achieved. The efficiency can be further increased by observing the photon repeatedly. The large single-photon nonlinearity of the experiment should enable the development of photonic quantum gates and the preparation of novel quantum states of light.
     
  13. Dec 9, 2013 #163

    Cthugha

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    Jörn Dunkel and Stefan Hilbert, "Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures", Nature Physics, advanced online publication, doi:10.1038/nphys2831 (2013).

    Abstract: Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

    The authors argue that there are important differences between the definitions of entropy given by Gibbs and the approximate one given by Boltzmann. They show that only the Boltzmann version gives a negative absolute temperature as sometimes reported in experiments on nuclear spin systems. The authors then argue that only the Gibbs version of entropy is fully consistent and make it clear that the negative Boltzmann temperature cannot have the meaning of a thermodynamic temperature.

    See also the news and views article in the same issue: http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nphys2831.html
     
  14. Jan 20, 2014 #164

    Cthugha

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    Jianyong Cen, Ping Yuan, and Simin Xue, "Observation of the Optical and Spectral Characteristics of Ball Lightning", Phys. Rev. Lett. v.112, p. 035001 (2014).

    Abstract: Ball lightning (BL) has been observed with two slitless spectrographs at a distance of 0.9 km. The BL is generated by a cloud-to-ground lightning strike. It moves horizontally during the luminous duration. The evolution of size, color, and light intensity is reported in detail. The spectral analysis indicates that the radiation from soil elements is present for the entire lifetime of the BL.

    Yes, this paper is about the mysterious natural ball lightning and it appears in a quality journal. Looks like this ball lightning was a dirty fellow. The researchers found lots of spectral lines you would expect from the elements present in the soil. Also see this focus article, which summarizes the paper.
     
  15. Jan 30, 2014 #165
    M. W. Ray, E. Ruokokoski, S. Kandel, M. Möttönen & D. S. Hall,"Observation of Dirac monopoles in a synthetic magnetic field", Nature 505, 657-660 (2014),
    doi:10.1038/nature12954

    Magnetic monopoles—particles that behave as isolated north or south magnetic poles—have been the subject of speculation since the first detailed observations of magnetism several hundred years ago1. Numerous theoretical investigations and hitherto unsuccessful experimental searches2 have followed Dirac’s 1931 development of a theory of monopoles consistent with both quantum mechanics and the gauge invariance of the electromagnetic field3. The existence of even a single Dirac magnetic monopole would have far-reaching physical consequences, most famously explaining the quantization of electric charge3, 4. Although analogues of magnetic monopoles have been found in exotic spin ices5, 6 and other systems7, 8, 9, there has been no direct experimental observation of Dirac monopoles within a medium described by a quantum field, such as superfluid helium-3 (refs 10, 11, 12, 13). Here we demonstrate the controlled creation14 of Dirac monopoles in the synthetic magnetic field produced by a spinor Bose–Einstein condensate. Monopoles are identified, in both experiments and matching numerical simulations, at the termini of vortex lines within the condensate. By directly imaging such a vortex line, the presence of a monopole may be discerned from the experimental data alone. These real-space images provide conclusive and long-awaited experimental evidence of the existence of Dirac monopoles. Our result provides an unprecedented opportunity to observe and manipulate these quantum mechanical entities in a controlled environment.


    Haven't been active in these forums for a while, but a colleague brought this paper to my attention and I felt like sharing to see if it might interest someone :D
     
  16. Jan 31, 2014 #166

    ZapperZ

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    A review of this paper can be found at PhysicsWorld:

    http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2014/jan/30/magnetic-monopoles-seen-in-the-lab

    Note that both this, and the earlier claim of magnetic monopole physics observation in spin-ice, are both condensed matter systems. This is just another example where the so-called "applied" field of physics is actually providing insight on fundamental physics.

    Zz.
     
  17. Apr 8, 2014 #167

    ZapperZ

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    Y-C. Lee, M-H. Hsieh, S.T. Flammia, and R-K. Lee "Local PT Symmetry Violates the No-Signaling Principle", Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130404 (2014).

    Abstract: Bender et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998)] have developed PT-symmetric quantum theory as an extension of quantum theory to non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We show that when this model has a local PT symmetry acting on composite systems, it violates the nonsignaling principle of relativity. Since the case of global PT symmetry is known to reduce to standard quantum mechanics A. Mostafazadeh [J. Math. Phys. 43, 205 (2001)], this shows that the PT-symmetric theory is either a trivial extension or likely false as a fundamental theory.

    A review of this can be found at APS Physics.

    Zz.
     
  18. Apr 24, 2014 #168

    ZapperZ

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    T. Grover, et al., "Emergent Space-Time Supersymmetry at the Boundary of a Topological Phase" Science v.344, p.280 (2014).

    Abstract: In contrast to ordinary symmetries, supersymmetry (SUSY) interchanges bosons and fermions. Originally proposed as a symmetry of our universe, it still awaits experimental verification. Here, we theoretically show that SUSY emerges naturally in condensed matter systems known as topological superconductors. We argue that the quantum phase transitions at the boundary of topological superconductors in both two and three dimensions display SUSY when probed at long distances and times. Experimental consequences include exact relations between quantities measured in disparate experiments and, in some cases, exact knowledge of the universal critical exponents. The topological surface states themselves may be interpreted as arising from spontaneously broken SUSY, indicating a deep relation between topological phases and SUSY.

    This is another example where a so-called "applied" field of physics (condensed matter) is providing insight into fundamental physics. Condensed matter systems had already discovered analogs of Majorana fermions and magnetic monopoles.

    Zz.
     
  19. May 6, 2014 #169

    Cthugha

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    T. Peng, et al., "Delayed-Choice Quantum Eraser with Thermal Light" Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 180401 (2014).

    Abstract: We report a random delayed-choice quantum eraser experiment. In a Young’s double-slit interferometer, the which-slit information is learned from the photon-number fluctuation correlation of thermal light. The reappeared interference indicates that the which-slit information of a photon, or wave packet, can be “erased” by a second photon or wave packet, even after the annihilation of the first. Different from an entangled photon pair, the jointly measured two photons, or wave packets, are just two randomly distributed and randomly created photons of a thermal source that fall into the coincidence time window. The experimental observation can be explained as a nonlocal interference phenomenon in which a random photon or wave packet pair, interferes with the pair itself at distance.

    The delayed choice quantum eraser is a topic which comes up quite often in this forum. It is frequently seen that people tend to assume strange things like "changing the past" in order to explain the experiment. Here is a completely classical version of the experiment using just classical light which shows that there is absolutely nothing mystical going on and everything can be explained in terms of standard physics.
     
  20. Sep 5, 2014 #170

    Andy Resnick

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    G. B. Lemos, V. Borish, G. D. Cole, S. Ramelow, R. Lapkiewicz, and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum imaging with undetected photons," Nature 512, 409-412 (2014).

    "Information is central to quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum interference occurs only if there exists no information to distinguish between the superposed states. The mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference1, 2. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a quantum imaging concept based on induced coherence without induced emission3, 4. Our experiment uses two separate down-conversion nonlinear crystals (numbered NL1 and NL2), each illuminated by the same pump laser, creating one pair of photons (denoted idler and signal). If the photon pair is created in NL1, one photon (the idler) passes through the object to be imaged and is overlapped with the idler amplitude created in NL2, its source thus being undefined. Interference of the signal amplitudes coming from the two crystals then reveals the image of the object. The photons that pass through the imaged object (idler photons from NL1) are never detected, while we obtain images exclusively with the signal photons (from NL1 and NL2), which do not interact with the object. Our experiment is fundamentally different from previous quantum imaging techniques, such as interaction-free imaging5 or ghost imaging6, 7, 8, 9, because now the photons used to illuminate the object do not have to be detected at all and no coincidence detection is necessary. This enables the probe wavelength to be chosen in a range for which suitable detectors are not available. To illustrate this, we show images of objects that are either opaque or invisible to the detected photons. Our experiment is a prototype in quantum information—knowledge can be extracted by, and about, a photon that is never detected."

    The last few sentences of the abstract are particularly intriguing.
     
  21. Sep 5, 2014 #171

    DennisN

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    Yes, thanks for the info! :smile:
    I add links here to the paper mentioned above:
    Arxiv link: Quantum Imaging with Undetected Photons: http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.4318
    Gabriela B. Lemos, Victoria Borish, Garrett D. Cole, Sven Ramelow, Radek Lapkiewicz, Anton Zeilinger (Submitted on 17 Jan 2014 (v1), last revised 27 Jan 2014 (this version, v2))
    Nature link: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v512/n7515/full/nature13586.html
     
  22. Jan 21, 2015 #172

    ZapperZ

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    C. Robens et al., "Ideal Negative Measurements in Quantum Walks Disprove Theories Based on Classical Trajectories" Phys. Rev. X 5, 011003 (2015).

    Abstract: We report on a stringent test of the nonclassicality of the motion of a massive quantum particle, which propagates on a discrete lattice. Measuring temporal correlations of the position of single atoms performing a quantum walk, we observe a 6σ violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. Our results rigorously excludes (i.e., falsifies) any explanation of quantum transport based on classical, well-defined trajectories. We use so-called ideal negative measurements—an essential requisite for any genuine Leggett-Garg test—to acquire information about the atom’s position, yet avoiding any direct interaction with it. The interaction-free measurement is based on a novel atom transport system, which allows us to directly probe the absence rather than the presence of atoms at a chosen lattice site. Beyond the fundamental aspect of this test, we demonstrate the application of the Leggett-Garg correlation function as a witness of quantum superposition. Here, we employ the witness to discriminate different types of walks spanning from merely classical to wholly quantum dynamics.

    Don't miss a very interesting review of this work here. That link also provides a link to a free copy to the paper.

    Zz.
     
  23. Feb 6, 2015 #173

    ZapperZ

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    L. Tao et al., "Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature", Nature Nanotechnology http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/NNANO.2014.325[/URL] (2015).

    Abstract: [i]Free-standing silicene, a silicon analogue of graphene, has a buckled honeycomb lattice[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref1[/URL] and, because of its Dirac bandstructure[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref2[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref3[/URL] combined with its sensitive surface, offers the potential for a widely tunable two-dimensional monolayer, where external fields and interface interactions can be exploited to influence fundamental properties such as bandgap[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref4[/URL] and band character[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref5[/URL] for future nanoelectronic devices[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref6[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref7[/URL]. The quantum spin Hall effect[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref3[/URL], chiral superconductivity[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref8[/URL], giant magnetoresistance[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref9[/URL] and various exotic field-dependent states[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref7[/URL] have been predicted in monolayer silicene. Despite recent progress regarding the epitaxial synthesis of silicene[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref8[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref9[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref10[/URL] and investigation of its electronic properties[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref11[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref13[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref14[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref15[/URL], to date there has been no report of experimental silicene devices because of its air stability issue[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref16[/URL]. Here, we report a silicene field-effect transistor, corroborating theoretical expectations regarding its ambipolar Dirac charge transport[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref17[/URL], with a measured room-temperature mobility of ∼100 cm2 V–1 s–1 attributed to acoustic phonon-limited transport[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref18[/URL] and grain boundary scattering. These results are enabled by a growth–transfer–fabrication process that we have devised—silicene encapsulated delamination with native electrodes. This approach addresses a major challenge for material preservation of silicene during transfer and device fabrication and is applicable to other air-sensitive two-dimensional materials such as germanene[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref2[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref3[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref4[/URL] and phosphorene[URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref19[/URL], [URL]http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2014.325.html#ref20[/URL]. Silicene's allotropic affinity with bulk silicon and its low-temperature synthesis compared with graphene or alternative two-dimensional semiconductors suggest a more direct integration with ubiquitous semiconductor technology.[/i]

    This is the first proof-of-principle demonstration of a transistor made with this material. Read a [URL='http://www.nature.com/news/graphene-s-cousin-silicene-makes-transistor-debut-1.16839']review of this work here[/URL].

    Zz.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 7, 2017
  24. Feb 19, 2015 #174
    Uhmm . . . ZZ it Seems like the link is not working anymore. :(
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 7, 2017
  25. Mar 3, 2015 #175

    ZapperZ

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    X-L. Wang et al. "Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon" Nature 518, 516 (2015).

    Abstract: Quantum teleportationhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref1 provides a ‘disembodied’ way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by previously shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. As well as being of fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communicationhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref2, distributed quantum networkshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref3 and measurement-based quantum computationhttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref4, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref5. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photonshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref6, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref7, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref8, atomshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref9, ionshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref10, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref11, electronshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref12 and superconducting circuitshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14246.html#ref13. All the previous experiments were limited to the teleportation of one degree of freedom only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various degrees of freedom—internal and external—and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to teleport multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, which is necessary to describe a quantum particle fully and, therefore, to teleport it intact. Here we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum. We use photon pairs entangled in both degrees of freedom (that is, hyper-entangled) as the quantum channel for teleportation, and develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states by exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more degrees of freedom. We verify the teleportation for both spin–orbit product states and hybrid entangled states, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work is a step towards the teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an increase in our technical control of scalable quantum technologies.

    See a review of this work at PhysicsWorld. Strangely enough, there is also free access to the actual paper, as of now (not sure if this is part of Nature's open access paper, or if this is available only for a limited time). So get it while you can!

    Zz.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 7, 2017
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