Z. Papic et. al. "Imaging Anyons with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy" PRX v.8, 0110371 (2018).

Abstract: Anyons are exotic quasiparticles with fractional charge that can emerge as fundamental excitations of strongly interacting topological quantum phases of matter. Unlike ordinary fermions and bosons, they may obey non-Abelian statistics—a property that would help realize fault-tolerant quantum computation. Non-Abelian anyons have long been predicted to occur in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) phases that form in two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of a large magnetic field, such as the ν=5/2 FQH state. However, direct experimental evidence of anyons and tests that can distinguish between Abelian and non-Abelian quantum ground states with such excitations have remained elusive. Here, we propose a new experimental approach to directly visualize the structure of interacting electronic states of FQH states with the STM. Our theoretical calculations show how spectroscopy mapping with the STM near individual impurity defects can be used to image fractional statistics in FQH states, identifying unique signatures in such measurements that can distinguish different proposed ground states. The presence of locally trapped anyons should leave distinct signatures in STM spectroscopic maps, and enables a new approach to directly detect—and perhaps ultimately manipulate—these exotic quasiparticles.

A review of this paper can be found here, and the actual paper itself can be accessed for free here.

A. Curtis et al., "Micro-scale fusion in dense relativistic nanowire array plasmas", Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03445.

Abstract: Nuclear fusion is regularly created in spherical plasma compressions driven by multi-kilojoule pulses from the world’s largest lasers. Here we demonstrate a dense fusion environment created by irradiating arrays of deuterated nanostructures with joule-level pulses from a compact ultrafast laser. The irradiation of ordered deuterated polyethylene nanowires arrays with femtosecond pulses of relativistic intensity creates ultra-high energy density plasmas in which deuterons (D) are accelerated up to MeV energies, efficiently driving D–D fusion reactions and ultrafast neutron bursts. We measure up to 2 × 10^{6} fusion neutrons per joule, an increase of about 500 times with respect to flat solid targets, a record yield for joule-level lasers. Moreover, in accordance with simulation predictions, we observe a rapid increase in neutron yield with laser pulse energy. The results will impact nuclear science and high energy density research and can lead to bright ultrafast quasi-monoenergetic neutron point sources for imaging and materials studies.

This is an open access paper. You may get the full paper here.

This is astounding because they claim to have achieved fusion using just "joule-level" laser pulses. But before you start dreaming of fusion-powered energy, the intensity level here is envisioned to be suitable as a neutron point source.

H. Kim et al., "Beyond triplet: Unconventional superconductivity in a spin-3/2 topological semimetal" Science Advances 06 Apr 2018:Vol. 4, no. 4, eaao4513 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao4513 (no full reference as of now).

Abstract: In all known fermionic superfluids, Cooper pairs are composed of spin-1/2 quasi-particles that pair to form either spin-singlet or spin-triplet bound states. The “spin” of a Bloch electron, however, is fixed by the symmetries of the crystal and the atomic orbitals from which it is derived and, in some cases, can behave as if it were a spin-3/2 particle. The superconducting state of such a system allows pairing beyond spin-triplet, with higher spin quasi-particles combining to form quintet or septet pairs. We report evidence of unconventional superconductivity emerging from a spin-3/2 quasi-particle electronic structure in the half-Heusler semimetal YPtBi, a low-carrier density noncentrosymmetric cubic material with a high symmetry that preserves the p-like j = 3/2 manifold in the Bi-based Γ8 band in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. With a striking linear temperature dependence of the London penetration depth, the existence of line nodes in the superconducting order parameter Δ is directly explained by a mixed-parity Cooper pairing model with high total angular momentum, consistent with a high-spin fermionic superfluid state. We propose a k ⋅ p model of the j = 3/2 fermions to explain how a dominant J = 3 septet pairing state is the simplest solution that naturally produces nodes in the mixed even-odd parity gap. Together with the underlying topologically nontrivial band structure, the unconventional pairing in this system represents a truly novel form of superfluidity that has strong potential for leading the development of a new series of topological superconductors.

The full access to this paper can be obtained here. Not sure if this is an open access paper, or available only for a short time.

Another fascinating result from the world of superconductivity, which isn't done in producing more surprises:

K. Kamiya et al., "Discovery of superconductivity in quasicrystal", Nature Communications v9., Article number: 154 (2018).

Abstract: Superconductivity is ubiquitous as evidenced by the observation in many crystals including carrier-doped oxides and diamond. Amorphous solids are no exception. However, it remains to be discovered in quasicrystals, in which atoms are ordered over long distances but not in a periodically repeating arrangement. Here we report electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific-heat measurements of Al–Zn–Mg quasicrystal, presenting convincing evidence for the emergence of bulk superconductivity at a very low transition temperature of Tc≅0.05 K. We also find superconductivity in its approximant crystals, structures that are periodic, but that are very similar to quasicrystals. These observations demonstrate that the effective interaction between electrons remains attractive under variation of the atomic arrangement from periodic to quasiperiodic one. The discovery of the superconducting quasicrystal, in which the fractal geometry interplays with superconductivity, opens the door to a new type of superconductivity, fractal superconductivity.

The entanglement was stable for many minutes, a significant improvement over a related experiment from 2011 with a few picoseconds coherence time (Entangled diamonds vibrate together).

Abstract: The usual theory of inflation breaks down in eternal inflation. We derive a dual description of eternal inflation in terms of a deformed Euclidean CFT located at the threshold of eternal inflation. The partition function gives the amplitude of different geometries of the threshold surface in the no-boundary state. Its local and global behavior in dual toy models shows that the amplitude is low for surfaces which are not nearly conformal to the round three-sphere and essentially zero for surfaces with negative curvature. Based on this we conjecture that the exit from eternal inflation does not produce an infinite fractal-like multiverse, but is finite and reasonably smooth.

This, of course, is the last paper written by Hawking while he was alive. The full version of the published paper can be found here. The arXiv version has been online since his death, but it has finally been published.

Astrophysicist Ethan Siegel has written an earlier explanation of this paper, in case you missed it.

From the abstract: "We find that the shape of the spectral line agrees very well with that expected for hydrogen and that the resonance frequency agrees with that in hydrogen to about 5 kilohertz out of 2.5 × 10^{15} hertz. This is consistent with charge–parity–time invariance at a relative precision of 2 × 10^{−12}—two orders of magnitude more precise than the previous determination8—corresponding to an absolute energy sensitivity of 2 × 10^{−20} GeV."