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S-matrix element for forward scattering and amputed green fu

  1. Jan 14, 2016 #1
    I'm studying dispersion relations applied as alternative method to perturbation theory from Weinberg's book (Vol.1)

    Let's consider the forward scattering in the lab frame of a massless boson of any spin on an arbitrary target ##\alpha## of mass ##m_\alpha>0## and ##\vec{p}_\alpha = 0##.
    Weinberg writes "By a repeated use of Eq(10.3.4) or the LSZ theorem, the S-Matrix element here is

    ## S = \frac{1}{(2\pi)^3\sqrt{4k^0k'^0}|N|^2}lim_{k^2\rightarrow 0}lim_{k'^2\rightarrow 0} \int d^4x d^4 y e^{-ik'y + ikx}(i\Box_y)(i\Box_x)<\alpha | T\left( A^\dagger(y) A(x) \right) |\alpha>, ##

    where ##<VAC| A(x) |k> = (2\pi)^{-3/2} (2\omega)^{-1/2}N e^{ikx}##.


    I have several questions on this formula:

    1. Since he discussed the Green function for a ##T##-product of generals operators; why did he choose ##A^\dagger## and ##A## in this case?

    2. Where does the factor ##|N|^2## in the denominator come from? Why in the denominator?

    3. Why does he talk about LSZ theorem? This S-matrix element seems the usual I get if I take the amputated Green function and I put the in/out coming particles on-shell, expect for the ##|N|^2## factor (I think the answer relies on this renormalization factor, but I don't understand why)

    4. Once he choose this renormalization ##<VAC| A_l(x)|\vec{q}_1,\sigma> =(2\pi)^{-3/2}N e^{ikx} u_l(q_1,\sigma)## (eq. 10.3.3). Why now can he change the renormalization adding the ##(2\omega)^{-1/2}## factor?
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Jan 14, 2016 #2

    vanhees71

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    The Feynman rules for S-matrix elements regarding the external lines (truncate the external legs from the propagator functions and dress them with asymptotic-free wave functions) originates from the LSZ-reduction theorem.

    The normalization factor for the free fields results from the equal-time canonical commutators for the fields. For a scalar field you have
    $$[\hat{\phi}(t,\vec{x}),\dot{\hat{\phi}}^{\dagger}(t,\vec{y})]=\mathrm{i} \delta^{(3)}(\vec{x}-\vec{y}).$$
    For plane-wave (momentum-eigen) functions the time derivative is where the ##1/(2 \omega)## factor comes from.

    Weinberg multiplies this with ##N##, which you have to take into account when you do perturbation theory and dress your external legs with self-energy insertions. Depending on your renormalization scheme you might have to compensate the corresponding wave-function renromalization factors in the asymptotic free fields.
     
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