Seeking recommendations for fiber laser mode-locking resources

In summary: Also try searching "optical solitons" in google books.I'm sorry, I cannot provide a summary for this conversation as it does not contain any relevant content to summarize. Please provide a conversation relevant to the topic of mode-locked fiber lasers.
  • #1
Hi there, I'm working on fiber lasers and I'm interested in getting up to speed with the topic of mode-locked fiber lasers. However, I can't seem to find resources suitable for me at this current stage, hope that you guys can help recommend a suitable review paper, book or anything that's relevant. Thanks in advance! =)

I guess I can say that I have a rough understanding of the basic principles of mode-locking, which is to select for the appropriate longitudinal modes such that they will interfere constructively and produce high energy pulses. This is achieved by ensuring that the longitudinal modes selected for have a fixed relative phase relationship with each other (i.e. [itex]\phi_n=\phi_0 +n \phi[/itex]). Also, there generally 2 main methods of mode-locking, namely active and passive mode-locking. Active mode-locking requires the use of externally driven modulators to generate mode-locked pulses, whereas in passive mode-locking pulse generation is instrinsic and the absorption (or loss) characteristics are usually dependent on the laser light intensity. (Please feel free to correct me if I've misunderstood the concepts.)

I can understand and derive that mode-locked pulses have a total energy higher than that of a CW laser (with random phase longitudinal modes).
Total energy of n phase-locked longitudinal modes (mode-locked)= [itex]n^2 E_0^{\phantom{0}2}[/itex]
Total energy of n random phase longitudinal modes (CW)= [itex]n E_0^{\phantom{0}2}[/itex]

And I guess that's about all I know...I was looking at the journal paper by Haus, "Mode-Locking of Lasers" but it seems to be beyond what I can grasp currently and thus I'm looking for something in between to bridge the gap...

Looking fwd to your replies. Thanks in advance! =)
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  • #2
have you looked at pages in rp-photonics? They got some nice info although they don't go into too much details or maths

It is quite difficult to give a summary of mode locking in a single post (so many different methods!) here is what I can tell you on the top of my head:

Mode locking is a way to produce extreme short pulses (what you do with these pulses is a different discussion). In a laser cavity like a fabre perot your output will consist of a lot of different frequencies at integer multiples of the free spectral range (ie FSR = 100GHz, your output will consist of light at 100GHz, 200GHz, 300GHz etc, the span of frequencies depends on your lasing medium and other conditions). Now, using the phase conditions you mentioned, all these modes will line up and created nice short pulses, hence the term mode locking.
Typically the phase of your modes are all over the place so your output never mode lock themselves. Active mode locking modulates a single selected mode to produce sidebands. The phase is controllable by the modulator so you can get mode locking that way. Since the duration of the pulse decreases with the span of your mode frequency, the shortness of the pulse generated this way is limited by the modulator.
Passive mode locking isn't limited by that problem because it uses properties of your optical components to generate short pulses. One way is to have 2 pulses collide. When you introduce phase difference to the ends of one of the pulses, the 2 pulses add interferometrically, the ends destructively interfere and the middle peaks constructively interfere. There are many other ways to passively mode lock a laser and each one of them elegant in their own way. The figure-8 laser is probably my favourite
One of the shortest pulses generated to this day uses "MAGIC mode locking" which apparently stands in its own category.

There are a number of textbooks I used during my undergrad optical courses but most of them are a chapter here and there, none of those books are solely about mode locking. Most of our materials came from past postgrad projects in the department. I can still refer you some of those books if you like.
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  • #3
Thanks for your insightful summary. Yes, I understand that mode-locking usually takes up only a chapter or a few chapters at best in most textbooks, but nonetheless, I think I could benefit from them, hope you can drop me some references. =)

In addition, would you happen to know how to interpret the optical spectrums and deduce the regime of soliton operation? I gather that anomalous dispersion should give Kelly sidebands in the optical spectrum, is this always true?
  • #4
soliton happens when your nonlinear effects cancel out your dispersion effects so your pulse does not broaden indefinitely. Fundamental solitons' pulse and spectrum simply remains stationary. Higher order ones you should see the spectrum kind of split up, then merge, then split up again etc in a periodic manner.

Kelly sidebands shows up when you demand too much pulse energy from your fibre, ie your solition is about to fall apart.

For textbooks I will probably have to dig through my undergrad notes but one general go to book our teaching staff love to use is the optical communications book (title varies with each edition, 6th is the newest i think) by Yariv. There are some other nice stuff in that book but I personally find it difficult to self study with it.
  • #5

Hello, thank you for reaching out for recommendations on mode-locking resources for fiber lasers. I can suggest a few resources that may be helpful in your research.

1. "Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers: Principles and Applications" by Dimitra D. Markos and Andrew M. Weiss. This book provides a comprehensive overview of mode-locking in fiber lasers, including the principles, methods, and applications. It also includes case studies and experimental results to help understand the concepts better.

2. "Fiber Lasers: Basics, Technology, and Applications" by Andreas Tünnermann and Jörg Neumann. This book covers the basics of fiber lasers, including mode-locking, as well as the latest technology and applications. It also includes a chapter specifically on mode-locked fiber lasers.

3. "Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers" by Johan Nilsson and William A. Clarkson. This book covers the fundamental principles of fiber lasers, including mode-locking, as well as the latest developments in fiber laser technology. It also includes a chapter on mode-locked fiber lasers.

In addition to these resources, I also suggest looking into recent journal articles on mode-locked fiber lasers, as well as attending conferences or workshops on the topic. These can provide valuable insights and updates on the latest research and developments in the field. I hope this helps in your search for suitable resources. Best of luck in your research!

Related to Seeking recommendations for fiber laser mode-locking resources

1. What is fiber laser mode-locking?

Fiber laser mode-locking is a technique used to generate ultrashort laser pulses in fiber lasers, typically on the order of picoseconds or femtoseconds. This process involves controlling the laser's output to produce a train of regularly spaced pulses, rather than a continuous beam of light.

2. Why is fiber laser mode-locking important?

Fiber laser mode-locking is important because it allows for the generation of extremely short laser pulses, which have many practical applications in fields such as medical imaging, material processing, and optical communication. These short pulses also have high peak powers, making them useful for nonlinear optical processes.

3. What are some commonly used techniques for fiber laser mode-locking?

Some commonly used techniques for fiber laser mode-locking include saturable absorber mode-locking, active mode-locking using an external modulator, and nonlinear polarization evolution mode-locking. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the best choice depends on the specific application.

4. What are some resources for learning more about fiber laser mode-locking?

There are many resources available for learning more about fiber laser mode-locking, including textbooks, research papers, and online resources such as tutorials and webinars. Some popular textbooks on the subject include "Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers" by Johan Nilsson and "Ultrafast Fiber Lasers" by Andrew Weiner.

5. What are some factors to consider when seeking recommendations for fiber laser mode-locking resources?

When seeking recommendations for fiber laser mode-locking resources, it is important to consider the specific application or research area you are interested in, as well as the level of detail and technical depth you require. It can also be helpful to seek recommendations from experts in the field or from colleagues who have experience with similar projects.

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