# Speed and / or expansion rate of the Universe?

• Shafat Hasan
In summary, the conversation discusses the concept of the universe expanding faster than the speed of light in some areas or points. One person is seeking clarification on this topic, and another person explains that proper speed is confined to the speed of light and there is no "outside of the universe."
Shafat Hasan
Is it true that the universe itself expands faster than c = 3 × 10^8 m/s at some places / areas / points.
I have heard it but wasn't able to confirm.
Because outside of the the universe, there ain't anything as far as we understand and hence the universe should not have to follow any law as far as speed is concerned.

Shafat Hasan said:
Is it true that the universe itself expands faster than c = 3 × 10^8 m/s at some places / areas / points.
I have heard it but wasn't able to confirm.
"faster than c" implies that you are equating recession with proper speed. Doesn't work that way. Proper speed is confined to c. Recession veloctiy has no such limit.
Because outside of the the universe, there ain't anything as far as we understand and hence the universe should not have to follow any law as far as speed is concerned.
This is not correct. There IS no "outside the universe" so any "rule" you make concerning it might just as well be applied to unicorns.

## 1. What is the current accepted value for the expansion rate of the Universe?

The current accepted value for the expansion rate of the Universe is approximately 73 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km/s/Mpc). This is known as the Hubble constant and is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble who first discovered the expansion of the Universe.

## 2. How is the expansion rate of the Universe measured?

The expansion rate of the Universe is measured using a variety of methods, including observations of the cosmic microwave background, the brightness and distance of Type Ia supernovae, and the movements and velocities of galaxies. These measurements are then compared to the distance between objects in the Universe to calculate the expansion rate.

## 3. Has the expansion rate of the Universe always been the same?

No, the expansion rate of the Universe has not always been the same. Early in the Universe's history, it underwent a period of rapid expansion called inflation. Since then, the expansion rate has slowed down due to the gravitational pull of matter in the Universe. However, recent observations suggest that the expansion rate may be accelerating due to the presence of dark energy.

## 4. What effect does the expansion rate of the Universe have on the objects within it?

The expansion rate of the Universe has a significant effect on the objects within it. As the Universe expands, galaxies and clusters of galaxies move further apart from each other. This can cause changes in the temperature and density of the Universe, as well as the overall structure of the Universe.

## 5. How does the expansion rate of the Universe relate to the age of the Universe?

The expansion rate of the Universe is directly related to the age of the Universe. As the Universe expands, it gets older. Currently, the estimated age of the Universe is around 13.8 billion years, which is determined by measuring the expansion rate and extrapolating backwards in time. However, the exact age of the Universe is still being refined by scientists and may change as our understanding of the expansion rate continues to evolve.

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