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Can anyone explain the following to me?

Given a basis beta for an n-dimensional vector space V over the field F, "the standard representation of V with respect to beta is the function phi_beta(x)=[x]_beta for each x in V." This is from my textbook.

It then proceeds to give the following example:

Let beta = {(1,0),(0,1)} and gamma = {(1,2),(3,4)}, where beta and gamma are ordered bases for R^2. For x=(1,-2), we have

phi_beta(x)=[x]_beta = (1,-2) and phi_gamma(x)=[x]_gamma = (-5,2).

I kind of see where the definition is going, and I understand how to find matrix representations of a transformation, but I just don't see what this standard representation thing is.

Where did the (1,-2) and the (-5,2) come from? How did they get these from the bases beta and gamma? I'm so confused! Any enlightenment would be wonderful.

Thanks.