Heat is the transfer of thermal energy. Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. Temperature is related to kinetic energy in the following way: The average kinetic energy of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature: 1/2 mv2 = C[itex]\Delta[/itex]T, where C is the proportionality constant. How is kinetic energy different from thermal energy? How is temperature different from heat (thermal energy)?