The compounds of acids are held together in ionic bonds?

The strength of an acid is determined by the amount of it per volume ionizes right? So is it safe to say acids, when not in water, are composed of ions? So for example, HCL has the potential to be an acid,as it is made of a H ion and a CL ion, but cannot be until it reacts with water, because water is the base that releases the Hydrogen Ion in HCL?
 

Borek

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Actually HCl is not ionic, it is perfectly covalent when gaseous. It dissociates when dissolved. It is not safe to assume acids are ionic, water and hydration of ions play very important role when it comes to dissociation.

Note that there is no such thing as purely covalent or purely ionic bond, they all have some mixed characteristic. Properties of some substances are dominated by ionic character of the bond, properties of other substances are dominated by covalent character of the bonds, but both types are always present to some extent.
 
Actually HCl is not ionic, it is perfectly covalent when gaseous. It dissociates when dissolved. It is not safe to assume acids are ionic, water and hydration of ions play very important role when it comes to dissociation.

Note that there is no such thing as purely covalent or purely ionic bond, they all have some mixed characteristic. Properties of some substances are dominated by ionic character of the bond, properties of other substances are dominated by covalent character of the bonds, but both types are always present to some extent.
So it breaks into Ions why? Main question is: why do they break into ions? as long as a compound breaks into ions, and one of them is H+, it is acidic. But why does this ion make acid acidic, why can't something like a potato salad make the compound acidic, what makes H+ so special, same with Hydroxide, what makes it so special in making a compound basic? And you said before that HCl is covalent in gaseous state, then why is it that it breaks into H+ and Cl- in water, not just regular atoms? Does it have to do with the pairs of electrons being attracted to one atom more than the other, in this case, chlorine, do to its electronegativity, thus making it sorta ionic?
 
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whats special about hydrogen is that when it ionizes it becomes a bare proton. No other element does that (under normal conditions)

the bond between hydorgen and oxygen or chlorine is clearly ionic because of the electronegativity of oxygen and chlorine. However because this results in a bare proton the proton is able to slip inside the electron shell of the oxygen or chlorine so the result is a sorta covalent bond.

most salts contain a metal ion so i assume that metallic bond properties are somehow involved in all this acid base stuff.

However I am not an expert and I know very little about acid base chemistry.
Its one of the things left on my to-do list.
 

Borek

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So it breaks into Ions why? Main question is: why do they break into ions?
Because when they are dissociated each individual ions is surrounded by water molecules. Water molecules are dipoles and they surround ions in a specific way - as if they wanted to neutralize the charge. Final energy of such a system is lower than the energy of the initial system. In a way minimalization of energy is behind almost all chemical processes.

as long as a compound breaks into ions, and one of them is H+, it is acidic. But why does this ion make acid acidic, why can't something like a potato salad make the compound acidic, what makes H+ so special
I think I already told you - we NAMED them this way, so no wonder there is a connection between being acidic and giving off H+. We have found experimentally (and quite early in the history of human kind) that there is a huge class of compounds that are sour. We called them acids and their solutions acidic. Later we found they have one thing in common - they dissociate giving off H+. There is nothing more special in the fact that objects giving off H+ are called acids than in fact that objects with an engine, propeller and wings are called planes.

And you said before that HCl is covalent in gaseous state, then why is it that it breaks into H+ and Cl- in water, not just regular atoms?
H+ and Cl- are much more stable than H and Cl atoms. These atoms are highly reactive as they want to reach more stable electronic configuration. H+ and Cl- ARE stable configurations for both of these atoms (they have lower energy than just atoms).
 
Because when they are dissociated each individual ions is surrounded by water molecules. Water molecules are dipoles and they surround ions in a specific way - as if they wanted to neutralize the charge. Final energy of such a system is lower than the energy of the initial system. In a way minimalization of energy is behind almost all chemical processes.



I think I already told you - we NAMED them this way, so no wonder there is a connection between being acidic and giving off H+. We have found experimentally (and quite early in the history of human kind) that there is a huge class of compounds that are sour. We called them acids and their solutions acidic. Later we found they have one thing in common - they dissociate giving off H+. There is nothing more special in the fact that objects giving off H+ are called acids than in fact that objects with an engine, propeller and wings are called planes.



H+ and Cl- are much more stable than H and Cl atoms. These atoms are highly reactive as they want to reach more stable electronic configuration. H+ and Cl- ARE stable configurations for both of these atoms (they have lower energy than just atoms).
So I just read that an individual H Ion is a lone proton. Didn't know that. I think I get it now. When an acid dissolves in in water, the hydrogen atom always disassociates into a Hydrogen Ion, positive, and the atom accompanying it will always be negative b/c it reacted with hydrogen and took its only e-?
 

Borek

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When an acid dissolves in in water, the hydrogen atom always disassociates into a Hydrogen Ion, positive, and the atom accompanying it will always be negative b/c it reacted with hydrogen and took its only e-?
You are mostly right, although acids are not limited to substances made of single hydrogen and single other atom - basically HF, HCl, HBr and HI only fit the description (some may add HAs to the list). Other acids are a little bit more complicated (HNO3), and they can carry more than one proton (H2SO4), but they behave similarly.
 
You are mostly right, although acids are not limited to substances made of single hydrogen and single other atom - basically HF, HCl, HBr and HI only fit the description (some may add HAs to the list). Other acids are a little bit more complicated (HNO3), and they can carry more than one proton (H2SO4), but they behave similarly.
Anymore concepts I need to get down in order to know all I can comprehend about acids?
Quiz me if you may, for some reason I feel that I know barely anything, soon I will have to start studying bases, and you can guess how many threads will be made on that. And then having to learn VB...
 

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