What is Ionic: Definition and 280 Discussions

An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state. In some contexts, the term has been restricted to salts whose melting point is below some arbitrary temperature, such as 100 °C (212 °F). While ordinary liquids such as water and gasoline are predominantly made of electrically neutral molecules, ionic liquids are largely made of ions. These substances are variously called liquid electrolytes, ionic melts, ionic fluids, fused salts, liquid salts, or ionic glasses.
Ionic liquids have many potential applications. They are powerful solvents and can be used as electrolytes. Salts that are liquid at near-ambient temperature are important for electric battery applications, and have been considered as sealants due to their very low vapor pressure.
Any salt that melts without decomposing or vaporizing usually yields an ionic liquid. Sodium chloride (NaCl), for example, melts at 801 °C (1,474 °F) into a liquid that consists largely of sodium cations (Na+) and chloride anions (Cl−). Conversely, when an ionic liquid is cooled, it often forms an ionic solid—which may be either crystalline or glassy.
The ionic bond is usually stronger than the Van der Waals forces between the molecules of ordinary liquids. Because of these strong interactions, salts tend to have high lattice energies, manifested in high melting points. Some salts, especially those with organic cations, have low lattice energies and thus are liquid at or below room temperature. Examples include compounds based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) cation and include: EMIM:Cl, EMIMAc (acetate anion), EMIM dicyanamide, (C2H5)(CH3)C3H3N+2·N(CN)−2, that melts at −21 °C (−6 °F); and 1-butyl-3,5-dimethylpyridinium bromide which becomes a glass below −24 °C (−11 °F).Low-temperature ionic liquids can be compared to ionic solutions, liquids that contain both ions and neutral molecules, and in particular to the so-called deep eutectic solvents, mixtures of ionic and non-ionic solid substances which have much lower melting points than the pure compounds. Certain mixtures of nitrate salts can have melting points below 100 °C.The term "ionic liquid" in the general sense was used as early as 1943.
When Tawny crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva) combat Fire ants (Solenopsis invicta), the latter spray them with a toxic, lipophilic, alkaloid-based venom. The Tawny crazy ant then exudes its own venom, formic acid, and self-grooms with it, an action which de-toxifies the Fire ant venom. The mixed venoms chemically react with one another to form an ionic liquid, the first naturally occurring IL to be described.

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  1. A

    A The main charge carrier in the ionic crystal is polaron or conduction?

    Suppose I have a perfect crystal(e.g.TiO2-Rutile, band gap=3ev), under UV light, there should photoconductivity, according to the condensed matter theory, some of these excited conduction band electrons would form small polarons, I am wondering how many percent of the free conduction band...
  2. P

    Breaking an Ionic Bond-Atom Charge & Electron Config

    When breaking an ionic bond in order to form a new compound, do the atoms retain their charge (new electron configuration) or revert back to their original form before creating a new bond with a new partner? Are all ions in a bond of some type or can they exist freely on their own?
  3. P

    Ionic bonding question about "double" ionic bonds

    Is a "double" ionic bond (the transfer of two electrons) like in MgO any stronger (or really any different, structurally etc.) than a "single" ionic bond (the transfer of one electron) like in NaCl?
  4. S

    Solvation of Ionic compound in water

    When you dissolve, for example, NaCl in water, then you get "NaCl in water" solution. Will the "NaCl in water " solution have different chemical properties from its constituents(NaCl and H2O)? i.e. is a "NaCl in water" solution a new compound with respect to NaCl or H2O ? And is the ion...
  5. Prabs3257

    Chemistry Solving Ionic Equilibrium Problem: Volume of HCl & Reaction Explained

    i am having a problem in understanding the question , what will be the volume of hcl ? and how is the reaction going to take place ? please help me i am stuck on this problem for quite a long time.
  6. H

    Difference between co-ordinate covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

    Right now we are learning about the Lewis definition of acids and bases. I don't get the clear difference between co-ordinate covalent and ionic bonds. For example, AlCl3 is listed as a co-ordinate covalent bond because experiments show that it behaves like a covalent molecule. Why can't it be...
  7. rachelmaddiee

    Chemistry Naming Ionic Compounds: Iron (III) Oxide

    Name: Iron (III) oxide C: Fe+3 A: O-2 My work** Should this be separated just like this for the first step?
  8. rachelmaddiee

    Chemistry Formation of Ionic Compound MgO

    Here is my work** Magnesium cations (Mg2+) Oxide anions (O 2-) A magnesium ion has a 2+ charge and the oxygen atom has a 2- charge. The formula for the ionic compound is MgO.
  9. D

    Chemistry Equilibrio of a sparingly soluble ionic compound

    I got the first question correct but I don’t understand the answer given for second question which is c (Pb^2+) = 8.4x10^-5 molL ^-1. It divided the concentrate for sulphate ion of Ag2SO4 into 2 , but it is the solubility right ?
  10. Prabs3257

    Chemistry Ionic equilibrium titration

    I got a answer by equation the moles i took the n factor of oxalic acid as 2 and the naoh solution came out to be 2M but i got an answer of 4grams but the answer given is 2 grams am i correct ??
  11. S

    Correlating pka and pH with ionic forms (exercises)

    I have the following molecule: benzotriazole. It has pka=12. At pH=6 which form prevails? a) neutral b) anionic c) cationic d) none of the above. I thought the correct answer was c) cationic: pH<pka, benzotriazole has basic functional groups (amines).
  12. A

    I Energy needed for an Ionic Bond

    Hi, so I've been learning about the energy transfers for an ionic bond, but my understanding breaks down at what seems to be the last hurdle. I will write what I know so far. So we need some energy that is listed as the ionisation energy to remove electrons from one atom then we need to put the...
  13. P

    Chemistry Do ionic compounds have intermolecular forces?

    Homework Statement Do ionic compounds such as NaCl and K2O have intermolecular forces? 2. The attempt at a solution I got stuck conceptually. NaCl and K2O are ionic compounds. Their basic unit is formula units. They are not molecular compounds. Ionic compounds are held together by...
  14. L

    Calculating pH with and without ionic strength

    Homework Statement There are four things to be calculated: -pH of 0.00196M solution of HCl in water, without taking ionic strength into account, -The same thing but taking ionic strength into account -pH of 0.00196M solution of HCl in Na2SO4, without taking ionic strength into account, -And...
  15. opus

    Determining the names of Ionic Compounds from their formulas

    Homework Statement Name the ionic compounds: a) ##K_2SO_4## b) ##Ba(OH)_2## c) ##FeCl_3## Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution These problems are actually in a sample exercise so I already have the answers, I just am really lost in this section of chemical nomenclature. First, at...
  16. Krushnaraj Pandya

    Calculate ionic concentration

    Homework Statement The ionization constant of ## {(C_2 H_5)}_3 {N}## is 6.4 x 10^(-5). Calculate degree of dissociation in its 0.1 M solution when it is mixed with 0.01 M NaOH solution. 2. The attempt at a solution the compound gives ##{(C_2 H_5)}_3 {NH+}## and ##OH-##. C is initial...
  17. resurgance2001

    A question about ionic bonding

    I am sure this question will have been asked elsewhere, so please forgive me if it has. My question involves the transfer of electrons in ionic bonding. We are told that a metal will give up its outer most electron because by doing so it will gain the electron configuration of a noble gas...
  18. lc99

    Net Ionic Lab Question (the lab procedure)

    Homework Statement Homework Equations n/a The Attempt at a Solution I'm kinda confused on the instructions of this net ionic lab. For this lab, I am suppose to find out how several solutions (6 of them) react with each other to form precipitates. We use some systematic way to test these by...
  19. H

    Integral constant for internal energy of an ionic liquid

    Integral constant for internal energy of ionic liquid I have a question, and I will be really grateful if someone helps me. I have a polynomial equation for internal energy which I calculated by integration an equation of state formula, which is based on density. But, because I calculated this...
  20. H

    Integral constant for internal energy of ionic liquid

    Integral constant for internal energy of ionic liquid I have a question, and I will be really grateful if someone helps me. I have a polynomial equation for internal energy which I calculated by integration an equation of state formula, which is based on density. But, because I calculated this...
  21. N

    What is the true definition of an ionic liquid?

    Hi. I have a question about the term, "Ionic liquid" When I researched the papers, I found the word "Ionic liquid" in many papers. First, I thought the ionic liquid just means the solution that solvent is ionized. But as I read other papers, I found that people don't mean ionized solution as...
  22. Ron19932017

    I Ionic bonding from a quantum mechanics point of view

    Hi all, I have a question about the quantum nature of ionic bonds. I know some ideas about molecular bonding which can combine two ground state of H atom to get a bonding state and an anti-bonding state which in the case of H2 molecules it correspond to the covalent bonding (sharing of...
  23. S

    Ionic bond strength in protein folding?

    Our text says that ionic bonds are much weaker in aqueous solutions than covalent bonds, due to the dissociative properties of most ionic compounds in water. I read elsewhere though, that in general, ionic bonds are stronger due to the increased polarity. So, in protein folding, when different...
  24. Jefffff

    Determining the Ionic Radii of group 2 metal chlorides?

    I need the ionic radius of the cation in the following anhydrous salts: FeCl2 and CoCl2 Looking at this database: http://www.knowledgedoor.com/2/elements_handbook/shannon-prewitt_effective_ionic_radius_part_2.html Knowing that the coordination number of both Fe2+ and Co2+ cations is 6, I am...
  25. J

    Ionic strength of Mcilvaine's Buffer

    Table 1. Preparation of Constant Ionic Strength McIlvaine Buffered Solutions Reference: P.J. Elving, J.M. Markowitz, I. Rosenthal, Analyt. Chem. 28(7): 1179-1180 (1956) pH Desired Composition, G/Liter of Solution Composition, Moles/Liter of Solution Buffer System G/Liter of KCl added per liter...
  26. T

    Ionic product of water changes

    Homework Statement Under which set of conditions is the ionic product of water, Kw, constant at a given temperature in aqueous systems? in dilute acidic but not dilute alkaline solutions.in dilute alkaline but not dilute acidic solutions.in both dilute acidic and alkaline solutions.only at...
  27. nmbr28albert

    I Does the ionic background of a crystal affect the index?

    In a crystal, the index of refraction is always calculated in the Lorentz oscillator model by examining the electronic response to an incident field and assuming a stationary nucleus. Is there however, any contribution to the index from the ionic nuclei in the background? I assume since I've...
  28. V

    A problem in ionic equilbrium

    Homework Statement please see the attached image 1998 ,b part question [/B]Homework Equations none The Attempt at a Solution i thought that Agcl would give Ag+ and cl- ions whose concentration can be found from Ksp as √Ksp,this Ag+ reacts with NH3 to give Ag(NH3)2+ (reverse of the given...
  29. L

    Question about ionic compounds

    When ionic compounds melt, do their state change or they are chemically changed? Or both? Since the electrostatic forces are overcame?
  30. C

    B Can all elements, (not including gases) form Ionic Bonds?

    I've been looking all over the internet, can calcium and iron form an ionic bond, Gold and Radium, Sodium and Tin. If those elements happened to run into each other. Also, another thing I don't understand is why don't the atoms in my hand bond with atoms on the wall when they come into contact.
  31. yosef

    Balancing acid equation-net ionic equation

    I was asked to take NaCl then add HNO3, then add AgNO3, and to write a net ionic equation... then add NH3 to the same mixture and write another net ionic equation. I have been trying between work and everything else to try to do this one. it wasn't well understood in class and now I haven't...
  32. B

    Naming Ionic Compound Review

    Homework Statement It's been a minute since I've used this stuff. Name the Ionic Compound Ca(MnO4)2 Ba(HCO3)2 UO3 NaH2PO4 Homework Equations In my book it says you name the cation first then add an Ide to the root. In UO3 this seems to work as its Uranium Oxide. But for the others I am not...
  33. S

    Faraday Cage in Ionic Solution

    Another question and a another terrible illustration. So my question: do faraday cages interfere with dispersion of ionic solutions? In the illustration, a chemical reaction or some other cause for a lower concentration of ions is happening inside a faraday cage at B. Will the solution disperse...
  34. J

    Electrons, Ionic Bonds: Hello Physics Forum - Q&A

    Hello Physics Forum, I have a quick question for the scientific community that I am unable to find online (likely because the term doesn't exist), but is there are term for the act of an electron moving from one orbit into another when binding two elements? Also I have a very minimal...
  35. B

    How is PbBr2 an ionic compound?

    I'm studying electrolysis with ionic compound and the example refers to PbBr2 However, I'm confused as to why this would ever be a substance because a Pb atom has 4 electrons in its outer shell while a Br atom has 7 electrons in its outer shell. If the two Br atoms were to gain an electron each...
  36. S

    Insulated metal, immersed in an ionic fluid

    Can a large body of electrolyte be used for ground? For example, if we placed an insulated metal into the ocean. If it was charged, would the ocean water be treated as the other electrode in calculating it's capacitance?
  37. B

    Are molecules only held together by Covalent bonds?

    Hi there, I'm studying for IGCSE Chemistry and I'm a little confused with Bonding/Molecules. My textbook says: "Molecules are held together by covalent bonds" I'm a little confused by this as I thought a molecule was formed when two or more atoms (same or different elements) join together...
  38. D

    High School Students: Chemistry, Ionic/Covalent Bonds, Urea & Hydroxyurea

    I came here from https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/i-dont-understand-how-hcl-is-not-a-ionic-bond.449393/ where replies are no longer allowed. I wanted to reply to suggest a few things: High school students who like chemistry are far smarter than anyone will give them credit for. High...
  39. Priyadarshini

    Constructing Balanced Ionic Equations

    Homework Statement Write a balanced ionic equation for the half equations given below: Al----> Al^+3 + 3e- 2H^+1 + 2e- -----> H2 Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I think the answer is: 2Al + 6H^+1 ----> 2Al^+3 + 3H2 But the answer in the book is: 4Al + 6H^+1 ----> 2Al^+3 + 3H2 What...
  40. Priyadarshini

    Constructing balanced ionic equations

    Homework Statement balance: SO2 + Br2 + H2O -----> SO4 ^-2 + Br^-1 + H^+1 Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I think the answer is: SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O ----> SO4^-2 + 2Br^-1 + 2H^+1 But the answer in the book is: SO2 + Br2 ----> SO4^-2 + 2Br^-1 Is my answer the correct one?
  41. J

    Understanding Ionic Equations: Pb2+ & I- Reactants

    Homework Statement An ionic equation is an equation that shows the chemical species that actually take part in a reaction. Ex. Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) -> PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq) So the ionic equation for this reaction is Pb2+ (aq) + 2I- (aq) -> PbI2 (s) How do we know that Pb2+ and I- takes...
  42. Salvador

    Exploring the Effects of an Ionic Wire: DC Source and Capacitor Connection

    I have a DC source. then I connect a capacitor from the +ve to ground. if all connection are made from ordinary , copper for example, wires then electrons flow from negative to positive terminals.So electrons from the negative side of the capacitor would flow to the positive. I wonder what...
  43. Metals

    Can ions separate from an ionic compound? How?

    The atoms in an ionic compound are either positively or negatively charged. I read that sodium hydroxide can cause permanent eye damage, because 'the ions travel to the back of the eyes'. Compounds are neutral, so for this to happen the ions must separate from the compound. Is this possible? If...
  44. gracy

    Crystals of high ionic charge are less soluble. why?

    Crystals of high ionic charge are less soluble. why?As we know,when hydration energy is less than lattice energy the ions are not soluble. So,crystals of high ionic charges have less hydration energy right?And it does make sense to me as higher the charge ,greater the lattice energy because...
  45. gracy

    Condition for formation of ionic bond

    In my textbook one of the conditions for formation of ionic bond is given as The cation should be large and anion should be small But in the image of Nacl lattice structure ,we can see that it is other way around I am not getting the reason,Is my textbook wrong ? Or it has something to do with...
  46. T

    Do ionic crystals have total electric dipole moment?

    I have come up with a paradox: Ionic crystals, in which cations and anions form a lattice, seems to have total electric dipole moment! For example, consider a one dimensional example: ##+ - + - + - ... + - + -## In the above picture, a ##+## represents a cation and a ##-## represents an anion...
  47. Drakkith

    Net Ionic Equation for HF+KOH

    Homework Statement The net ionic equation for the reaction between aqueous solutions of HF and KOH is___. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution At first I thought it would simply be H+ + OH- = H2O, with the K and F ions as spectator ions. But the answer is apparently HF + OH- = H2O +...
  48. N

    What is the format for ionic lewis structure w/ resonance?

    Homework Statement I need to draw NH4NO2 which is an ionic compound. 3. The Attempt at a Solution NH4 is fairly straightforward to draw, with one N in the middle and four H surrounding, and no lone pairs. The problem comes with NO2- which is one nitrogen bonded to two oxygens. However, one...
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