I declare that the Mongol Empire was the most impressive military force in the history of man. Proof of this can first be seen in the simple expansion and breadth of their empire. Within a hundred years, they had established the largest contiguous empire in the history of man. It spanned from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe, and from mid-Russia to the Middle-East. In doing this they subdued long-standing, technologically advanced nations (Hungary, Austria, Jurchen and Song Dynasties, the Rus), as well as a large number of other impressive nations (Khwarezmids, Cuman Khanate, Northern India, Qara Khitans). Tactically, they were impeccable. Before invading a foreign country, they would have spies operating (to determine the relative strengths of opponents, who got along, drawing up maps) for years. Logistically they did quite well as their horses could simply graze en route to their destinations and they were effective at extorting food from submissive nations. They could cover up to 100 miles in a day, enabling them to catch their adversaries off-guard. They had excellent scouts, so they were very rarely (I've never come across an example of it happening) caught off-guard. They used the land fully to their advantage, diverting rivers, using them to guard, and being willing to run for days to achieve a terrain advantage. As masters of (what I consider to be the most effective military maneuver pre-guns) horse archery, they were able to devastate their opponents without allowing them any form of retaliation. They also made effective use of heavy cavalry to break opponents once their archers had softened them up. They were always on the lookout for better methodology. They regularly incorporated superior techonolgy into their military structure (namely chinese siege weaponry and engineering capabilities). They used very effective tactics in-battle: enveloping maneuvers, false retreats, screening. Their communication was superb as well. In-battle, they used systems of flags and smoke to keep a general in constant communication with his subordinates (this was at a time when, at least for Europe, in-battle communication was slight, with a general mob rush beserker tactic being employed). For strategic communication they had their own version of the Pony Express (a rider who never stops because he changes horses at way-stations) to keep armies regularly in-touch. Finally they were never fully defeated by an opponent (yes, they lost the battle of Ain Jalut, but that was to a specially trained force that used their own tactics against them, at a time when there was in-fighting amongst Mongol generals so they were unable to retaliate). Their cultural weakeness did lead to the gradual incorporation of their commanders into the conquered peoples way of life, but again, as a MILITARY FORCE, they were unstoppable. Prove me wrong.