# The normal and anomalous Zeeman effect

• Hymne
In summary, the anomalous Zeeman effect is when the g factors of 1 and 2 are mixed, and can be different from 1 and 2.
Hymne
Hi! I have difficulties seeing the cause that make these to concepts diffret. Haken and Wolf writes about the last one:"One speaks of the anomalous Zeeman effect when the angular momentum and magnetic moment of the two terms between which an optical transistion occurs cannot be described by just one of the two quantum numbers s or l., but are determined by both."However in the nomal Zeeman we used the J as a quantum number and therefore used both?! I am not getting this right..

Hymne said:
However in the nomal Zeeman we used the J as a quantum number and therefore used both?! I am not getting this right..

It's not whether you use J, L and S, but their interdependence. With the ordinary Zeeman effect, you have LS-coupling, so J is conserved and J = L + S. So L and S (the total angular momentum and spin) don't change independently of each other.

Yeah, but what is the case in the anomalous Zeeman effect then? J is still conserved right?

In the case of the anomalous Zeeman effect, J=L+S is conserved.
(For example, in the case of L=1, and S=1/2, J=1+1/2=3/2 ...)

But each value of L and S is not conserved.
(Each value S and L is changing with time. (For example, S=1/2-0.1, L=1+0.1...)
But the sum of L and S must be conserved. (For example, J=S+L= (1/2-0.1) + (1+0.1) =3/2)...)

The spin g factor is 2, and orbital g factor is 1.
So in the anomalous Zeeman effect, these g factors of 1 and 2 are mixed, and can be different from 1 and 2, because each direction(value) of L and S is changing by the precession.

In the ordinary Zeeman effect or Paschen Back effect, the directions(values) of L and S are conserved (L=1, S=1/2)
So the g factor is 1 or 2, and the magnetic moments are the same as the Normal Zeeman effect. (1 x 1 = 2 x 1/2 = 1)

## What is the normal Zeeman effect?

The normal Zeeman effect refers to the splitting of spectral lines in an atomic or molecular spectrum when the atoms or molecules are subjected to an external magnetic field. This splitting occurs due to the interaction between the magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moment of the atoms or molecules.

## What is the anomalous Zeeman effect?

The anomalous Zeeman effect is a more complex version of the normal Zeeman effect, where additional splitting of spectral lines occurs due to the interaction between the magnetic field and the electron spin of the atoms or molecules. This effect is only observed in atoms or molecules with one or more unpaired electrons.

## What causes the Zeeman effect?

The Zeeman effect is caused by the interaction between the magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moment or electron spin of the atoms or molecules. This interaction results in the splitting of spectral lines in the atomic or molecular spectrum.

## How is the Zeeman effect observed?

The Zeeman effect can be observed by subjecting the atoms or molecules to an external magnetic field and then analyzing the resulting spectral lines using a spectrometer. The splitting of the spectral lines will be visible and can be measured to determine the strength of the magnetic field and the properties of the atoms or molecules.

## What is the importance of the Zeeman effect?

The Zeeman effect is important in many areas of science, including astronomy, atomic and molecular physics, and materials science. It allows scientists to study the magnetic properties of atoms and molecules and provides valuable information about the structure and behavior of matter in the presence of a magnetic field.

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