# What is Zeeman: Definition and 82 Discussions

Sir Erik Christopher Zeeman FRS (4 February 1925 – 13 February 2016), was a British mathematician, known for his work in geometric topology and singularity theory.

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1. ### How to Find the "Net Change Ring Area Ratio" for the Zeeman Effect

To find ##\delta## for the 1st order, all I need to do is to square the diameter of the 2nd ring and subtract it to the square of the diameter of the first ring. $$\delta_{1st \; order} = {d^2}_{2nd \; ring} - {d^2}_{1st \; ring}$$ To find ##\Delta##, I can use the below equation...
2. ### How to Find the Magnetic Field (B) in a Zeeman Effect

I have been analyzing a set of data from a lab activity on the Zeeman effect. The data (i.e. images) gathered can be previewed via this Google drive link here. While I am provided with the numerical data on the current (##I##), I am not provided with any data on the magnetic field. With the...
3. ### Questions on the Zeeman Effect

*Data Location: Recently, I have been working on a lab project on the Zeeman effect. After conducting the laboratory work necessary to produce the Zeeman effect, the results were saved as a photo and pasted together as a PDF file. To view the images (in PDF format), please refer to the Google...
4. ### I Perturbation Theory and Zeeman Splitting

Suppose we have a hamiltonian $$H_0$$ and we know the eigenvectors/values: $$H_0 |E_i \rangle = E_i|E_i \rangle$$ We then add to it another perturbing Hamiltonian: $$H’$$ which commutes with $$H_0.$$ According to nondegenerate first order perturbation theory: \langle H \rangle \approx...
5. ### Zeeman effect: Experimental Setup and Explanation

Homework Statement: Hello, I have to explain using numbers the Zeeman effect for hydrogen and the setup needed. I have done some research and if I'm not wrong, then a magnetic field of 1 Tesla is needed. I have no idea how to achieve that using commercially available products and how to even...
6. ### Sun question: Determine the velocity of the gas

Homework Statement From near to the center of the solar disc, Fe I line emission from point X shows a spectral line with components 666.823, 666.830 and 666.837 nm, around the rest wavelength of 666.800 nm. The central component is not as bright as those at the longer and shorter wavelengths...
7. ### I Does spin orbit coupling cause the split in the energy level of the electron?

Hi, As far as I understand spin orbit coupling is the interaction between proton of atom and electron. Proton's motion(from the frame of electron) around electron creates magnetic field. Hence electron experiences magnetic field. Does this magnetic field produces a Zeeman effect which cause...
8. ### Zeeman Effect: Splitting of Lyman-α Wavelength

Homework Statement The Lyman-α line (n = 2 → n = 1) has a wavelength of 121.6nm in the absence of a magnetic field. When B = 1 Tesla, into how many wavelengths will this split and what are their wavelengths? (You may need the values μ B = 9.274 × 10 −24 J/T, h̄ = 1.054 × 10 −34 Js and c =...
9. D

### Quantum constant of motion in a magnetic field

Hello, I have a doubt about the Complete Set of commuting observables (CSCO) in the cases when there are a magnetic field ##B## in z. The statement is find the constant of motion and CSCO for a particle of mass m and spin 1/2, not necessary a electron or any atomic particle. I know that the...
10. ### I Zeeman effect after a Stern-Gerlach experiment

Let's say you take a beam of particles and pass it through a Stern Gerlach apparatus and you select one of the outgoing beams, therefore collapsing the wavefunction to certain values of orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum. If you performed the Zeeman experiment on that beam, I'm...
11. ### I Why normal Zeeman effect contains three components?

Can someone explain to me why normal Zeeman effect splits spectral line into three components and not into 4, 5 or any other number?
12. ### A Zeeman energy with an effective mass

Hi all, Say we have a model in a solid state system where we have an effective mass, $$m^*,$$some fraction of the free electron mass. Now we apply an external magnetic field. Then the Zeeman energy splitting should be: E_{Zeeman}=\pm 1/2 g \mu_B B...
13. ### I Why is light polarised for the Zeeman effect?

as seen in this diagram. What's the underlying quantum explanation for it?
14. ### I How to diagonalize Hamiltonian with Zeeman field

Recently I have been asked to solve the problem of an electron in a Zeeman-field that couples the spin of the electron to the magnetic field. I am not sure how to correctly set up the problem. I think, however, that what I have done on the picture is correct. The usual p^2/2m + V term in the...
15. ### I Zeeman effect sign of circular polarization

I'm unsure about the sign of the circular polarization. Assume the magnetic field is pointed toward the observer. In the Zeeman effect spectrum, is the CCW polarized emission at higher or lower wavelength than the CW polarized emission. I think the CCW polarized emission is higher, and this is...
16. ### B Why doesn't the normal Zeeman effect produce a band?

I know that orbital angular momentum is quantized. If the potential energy is developed because of the external magnetic field applying a torque on the magnetic dipole, then from the dot product of the dipole moment and magnetic field we have a cosine term, shouldn't this give rise to all the...
17. ### Does the magnetic field decrease in a Zeeman slower as atoms slow down?

Background: I have limited knowledge on QM and only know that magnetic fields split the energy levels of an atom It seems counter-intuitive to me that as the atoms slow down along the tube the magnetic field strength decreases http://es1.ph.man.ac.uk/AJM2/Atomtrapping/Zeeman-B-field.jpg as...
18. ### Drawing the Zeeman Spectrum in Magnesium

Homework Statement A zeeman experience is made in the transition 3s4s ## ^3S_1## -> 3s3p ##^3P_2## in Magnesium with a magnetic field of 2Teslas (20 000 Gauss). With no magnetic field the emission occurs in 518.360nm. a) Draw the spectrum of what you hoped you observe when you're watching the...
19. ### Zeeman Effect, Angular Momentum States, Dipole vs No Dipole.

Hi all, Just a quick theory based question regarding the Zeeman Effect. The effect of the applied magnetic field in the Zeeman effect separates the possible angular momentum states (each of which has a magnetic dipole associated with it) into different energy levels. However, if the...
20. ### Stern-gerlach vs zeeman effect = paradox?

This may be a stupid question, but I am reviewing for the physics gre and can't help but see the zeeman effect and stern-gerlach experiments as contradictions. In the Zeeman effect, a neutral atom energy level will split into 3 levels (or 2 or more if take into account anomalous zeeman), but in...
21. ### Basic strong Zeeman effect question

I have a question about the Zeeman effect and pertubation theory. I read in Griffiths that with the strong Zeeman effect the total angular momentum is not conserved but Lz and Sz are. I don't really understand why this is in a physical sense, because I thought that angularmomentum always was...
22. ### Zeeman Effect - average shift is zero?

Homework Statement Part (a):Find the first order shift in energy Part(b): What is the degeneracy after perturbation? Find Show average shift in energy is zero. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I've shown part (a), the troubling part is part (b). Part (b) With the perturbation...
23. ### What is the eigenvalue of angular momentum? (Zeeman)

Homework Statement In the calculation of the Zeeman Effect, the most important calculation is \langle L_z + 2S_z \rangle = \langle J_z + S_z\rangle Suppose we want to find the Zeeman Effect for ##(2p)^2##, meaning ##l=1##. In Sakurai's book, My question is, what is ##m##? They say that...
24. ### Zeeman effect in Hydrogen

Homework Statement Part (a): What's the origin of that expression? Part(b): Estimate magnetic field, give quantum numbers to specify 2p and general nl-configuration Part (c): What is the Zeeman effect on states 1s and 2s? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Part (b) H =...
25. ### Why does the anomalous Zeeman effect not show up on some atoms?

Why does the "anomalous" Zeeman effect not show up on some atoms? I read this: I don't see why the electron spin affected the number of lines to go up in some atoms and not in others. The electron(s) on the H atom also have spin. Thank you.
26. ### Zeeman Effect: Homework Questions on n=2 & 3 Energy Levels in 2T Magnetic Field

Homework Statement Consider the splitting of the n=2 and n=3 energy levels for a hydrogen atom placed in a 2T magnetic field. Consider only the normal Zeeman effect (ignore spin). (a) What is the separation in energy between adjacent ml levels for the same l? (b) How many different...
27. ### Zeeman Effect Lab Homework: Measuring Rings for Bohr Magneton

Homework Statement I'm having huge issues on the Zeeman Effect lab- the goal being to get the Bohr magneton. The problem is I do not know how to measure the rings. Can I simply measure this with a ruler? How many of the rings do I have to measure in one picture?
28. ### Paschen-Back and Zeeman in different base

Hello, In the image below, we see the result of the Zeeman and Paschen-Back effect in a magnetic field which we worked out, together with the exact result, described in different basesets (coupled J,mj and uncoupled mlms). I understand that each effect can be better described in a...
29. ### The Normal Zeeman Effect and Hydrogen States

I'm studying the hydrogen atom and have this question. Apparently it can be solved without perturbation theory, however I'm having trouble justifying it. Homework Statement 2. The attempt at a solution Avoiding perturbation theory I simply get: E = E(n) - constant*(mh) where m...
30. ### The problem between two pictures that show the same(?) Zeeman effect

Hello. I am confused with my teacher argument with the two pictures that shows the Zeeman effect. The addresses to them is http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kcy05t/paschen.html (the first pictures) http://psi.phys.wits.ac.za/teaching/Connell/phys284/2005/lecture-03/lecture_03/node14.html My...
31. ### How Is the Magnetic Field Calculated in the Normal Zeeman Effect?

Homework Statement The red line of the Balmer series in hydrogen has a wavelength of 656.5 nm. Suppose that this line is observed to split into three diﬀerent spectral lines when placed in a magnetic ﬁeld, B, due to the Normal Zeeman Eﬀect. What is the value of the magnetic ﬁeld if the...
32. ### Zeeman Effect with a matrix involved

Please refer to picture (1). This the equation of motion for an electron in a magnetic field along the z direction and moving with a certain velocity. Where Ω is the Larmor's frequency. Then refer to picture (2), that is the matrix representing the previous equation. How was this matrix...
33. ### Zeeman Shift on Positronium

Homework Statement The magnetic moment for an electron is \mue = -e/m Se. The magnetic moment for a positron is \mue = +e/m Se. In the ground state, the quantum numbers are n=1 and l=0. a) What is the physical mechanism for the Zeeman shift? b) Write the Hamiltonian and identify H0 and...
34. ### Landé g factor in the Zeeman Effect

Homework Statement A source which emits a line at 500 nm is found to exhibit the normal Zeeman e ffect when placed in a magnetic fi eld. Calculate the magnetic field given that the separation of adjacent components in the Zeeman pattern is 12.0 pm. Homework Equations E=hc/lambda...
35. ### Finding B-field from Zeeman effect pattern

Hey I have this problem Homework Statement A source which emits a line at 500nm is found to exhibit the normal Zeeman effect when placed in a magnetic field. Calculate the magnetic field given that the separation of adjacent components in the Zeeman pattern is 12.0pm...
36. ### How does the Zeeman Effect contribute to laser cooling of atoms?

I have a couple of questions regarding laser cooling. I should preface this by saying that I've taken a course in Modern Physics, so I don't have more than a very basic understanding of QM. In this case, I am familiar with absorption/emission lines, Zeeman effect, degeneracy and quantum numbers...
37. ### Why is there a central line in Zeeman effect?

Why is there a central line when a magnet is used to split the electrons? I would have thought that since electrons have two characteristic states that one type would go one way and the other type the other way so the middle should be blank.
38. ### Laser Cooling & Zeeman Effect

I have a couple of questions regarding laser cooling. I should preface this by saying that I've taken a course in Modern Physics, so I don't have more than a very basic understanding of QM. In this case, I am familiar with absorption/emission lines, Zeeman effect, degeneracy and quantum...
39. ### Exploring the Normal & Anormal Zeeman Effects

There are two types of zeeman effect, one normal and the other one anormal, but why are they called so? I mean what is so normal about the normal zeeman effect and what is so anormal about the anormal zeeman effect??
40. ### Calculating Satellite Line Splitting in a Sunspot using the Zeeman Effect

Homework Statement "The normal Zeeman effect splits a spectral line at frequency \nu_{0} and two satellite lines at \nu_{0} ± eB/(4\pi m_{e}). By what amount (in angstroms) are the satellite lines of the hydrogen Balmer \alpha line (\lambda_{0} = 6562.81 Å) split from the central component...
41. ### Trying to find references for polarization effect of Normal Zeeman Effect

Hi, I am trying to find a resource that can explain how σ and ∏ lines obtain their polarizations. I have not found resource that actually show the calculation or solid explanation that show this.The references are usually state that σ and ∏ have circular polarization and linear polarization...
42. ### Zeeman Effect - Strong Field

Homework Statement Have to find the applied magnetic field for strong zeeman effect for sodium. Given three resonance line components 580nm 585nm and 590 nm Homework Equations Ezeeman=B*Bohr Magneton*ml ml= 0,1 or -1The Attempt at a Solution Change energy = hf = hc/wavelength Can't get...
43. ### Weak field zeeman effect, why don't we still use degenerate perturbation theory?

the spin orbit coupling removes the degeneracy but not completely, should we still use the degenerate perturbation theory. is it because of relativistic corrections? Thanks!
44. ### Zeeman effect - spin orbit coupling

As far as I know: the possible orientations that the total angular momentum can take (given my Mj) are degenerate. if we apply a magnetic field, degeneracy will be lost and different states arise. this is the zeeman effect but when looking up on google for zeeman effect, a webpage used as an...
45. ### Exploring the Zeeman Effect in Cadium and Other Elements

HI I don't understand why cadium or other elements have different zeeman effect because of their electron configiration thanks
46. ### Zeeman effect, something I'm not understanding, about history

With the normal Zeeman effect, I think the splitting of the emission/absorbtion lines is worth \Delta E = \mu _B B m_l. That was before they knew about the spin. When they discovered the spin they realized that in fact the energy splitting was worth \Delta E =g_l \mu _B B m_l where...
47. ### Magnetic resonancy, Zeeman effect

Homework Statement A magnetic resonancy experiment is realized using hydrogen atoms in their ground state. A constant magnetic field B_0 duplicate the magnetic energy levels in the atoms and an oscillating magnetic field B_ \omega is synchronized to the frequency that corresponds to the...
48. ### How Does the Zeeman Effect Alter the Wavelength of Hydrogen's Paschen Lines?

Homework Statement The \alpha lines of Paschen in the hydrogen spectrum are due to transitions n=4 \to n=3. Identify the allowed 4p \to 3d transitions and determine the change in wavelength for each transition if there's an external B field of 2T.Homework Equations \Delta E=m_l \mu _B B...
49. ### Understanding the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Advanced Student Laboratories

Homework Statement The anomalous Zeeman effect is studied in an advanced student laboratory. A spectral lamp is filled with the vapor of an unknown atom. (It is unknown to the student.) The atoms are excited to the 2D5/2 state with a high frequency electromagnetic field. When a static magnetic...
50. ### Normal Zeeman effect of hydrogen atoms

Homework Statement When specially prepared Hydrogen atoms with their electrons in the 6d state are placed into a strong uniform magnetic field, the degenerate energy levels split into several levels. This is the so called normal Zeeman effect. A) Ignoring the electron spin what is the...