What is Zeeman effect: Definition and 66 Discussions

The Zeeman effect (; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈzeːmɑn]), named after Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is analogous to the Stark effect, the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. Also similar to the Stark effect, transitions between different components have, in general, different intensities, with some being entirely forbidden (in the dipole approximation), as governed by the selection rules.
Since the distance between the Zeeman sub-levels is a function of magnetic field strength, this effect can be used to measure magnetic field strength, e.g. that of the Sun and other stars or in laboratory plasmas.
The Zeeman effect is very important in applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It may also be utilized to improve accuracy in atomic absorption spectroscopy.
A theory about the magnetic sense of birds assumes that a protein in the retina is changed due to the Zeeman effect.When the spectral lines are absorption lines, the effect is called inverse Zeeman effect.

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  1. PhysicsRock

    I Derivation of normal Zeeman-Effect

    I was / am trying to derive the energy shift resulting from the normal Zeeman-Effect by coupling the Hamiltonian to the external field ##\vec{A}##, that carries the information about the field ##\vec{B}## via ##\vec{B} = \nabla \times \vec{A}##. Let ##q = -e## be the charge of the electron and...
  2. Rayan

    What is the energy difference between the peaks in the Zeeman effect?

    But I don't really know how I am supposed to find the energy difference from the graph, how can I know which peaks to use?
  3. ValeForce46

    I Questions on the classical interpretation of (normal) Zeeman effect

    I'll put pictures from the book as I think they are relevant to understand the problem: I have trouble understanding the case where the observer watches the source in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The electron will rotate around B axis, so the observer will only see a linear...
  4. Athenian

    How to Find the "Net Change Ring Area Ratio" for the Zeeman Effect

    To find ##\delta## for the 1st order, all I need to do is to square the diameter of the 2nd ring and subtract it to the square of the diameter of the first ring. $$\delta_{1st \; order} = {d^2}_{2nd \; ring} - {d^2}_{1st \; ring}$$ To find ##\Delta##, I can use the below equation...
  5. Athenian

    How to Find the Magnetic Field (B) in a Zeeman Effect

    I have been analyzing a set of data from a lab activity on the Zeeman effect. The data (i.e. images) gathered can be previewed via this Google drive link here. While I am provided with the numerical data on the current (##I##), I am not provided with any data on the magnetic field. With the...
  6. Athenian

    Questions on the Zeeman Effect

    *Data Location: Recently, I have been working on a lab project on the Zeeman effect. After conducting the laboratory work necessary to produce the Zeeman effect, the results were saved as a photo and pasted together as a PDF file. To view the images (in PDF format), please refer to the Google...
  7. R

    I Photon Emitted without Changing Energy Levels

    In Example 41.5, they are implying that, for a hydrogen atom, if the orbital quantum number ##l## goes down the electron will lose energy. However, they said nothing about the principal quantum number ##n## going down, so there should be no loss in energy. As far as this book has presented, the...
  8. Kartoshka123

    Zeeman effect: Experimental Setup and Explanation

    Homework Statement: Hello, I have to explain using numbers the Zeeman effect for hydrogen and the setup needed. I have done some research and if I'm not wrong, then a magnetic field of 1 Tesla is needed. I have no idea how to achieve that using commercially available products and how to even...
  9. M

    Spin-orbit coupling and the Zeemann effect

    Homework Statement Consider an electron in a hydrogen atom in the presence of a constant magnetic field ##B##, which we take to be parallel to the ##z##-axis. Without the magnetic field and ignoring the spin-orbit coupling, the eigenfunctions are labelled by ##\vert n, l, m, m_s \rangle##...
  10. HastiM

    I 3p->2s: Why spectral line split into three lines in m. field

    Hello, suppose we have an excited hydrogen atom in 3p state which makes a transition to 2s state. Then the atom loses some energy by emitting a photon which can be detected (or seen). I have no problems with that situation. If there is an external magnetic field, the energy levels of the...
  11. F

    I What is an optically active electron?

    I was studying the spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect, and came across the concept of optically active electrons. Initially I got the idea that an optically active electron is any unpaired electron. But then, while trying to understand the Zeeman effect in a Cadmium atom, for which...
  12. patric44

    Can i cause NMR with a simple slayer exiter (Tesla coil)?

    hello guys i saw a slayer exciter circuit , witch is the crude more simpler version of the tesla coil and i made it , it works quite well but i have some questions. some questions : 1 - how strong is the magnetic field caused by this tesla coil ? it can ionize neon gas , or argon ? 2 - i...
  13. S

    I Zeeman effect after a Stern-Gerlach experiment

    Let's say you take a beam of particles and pass it through a Stern Gerlach apparatus and you select one of the outgoing beams, therefore collapsing the wavefunction to certain values of orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum. If you performed the Zeeman experiment on that beam, I'm...
  14. M

    I Why normal Zeeman effect contains three components?

    Can someone explain to me why normal Zeeman effect splits spectral line into three components and not into 4, 5 or any other number?
  15. G

    I Why is light polarised for the Zeeman effect?

    as seen in this diagram. What's the underlying quantum explanation for it?
  16. K

    I Zeeman effect sign of circular polarization

    I'm unsure about the sign of the circular polarization. Assume the magnetic field is pointed toward the observer. In the Zeeman effect spectrum, is the CCW polarized emission at higher or lower wavelength than the CW polarized emission. I think the CCW polarized emission is higher, and this is...
  17. Q

    B Why doesn't the normal Zeeman effect produce a band?

    I know that orbital angular momentum is quantized. If the potential energy is developed because of the external magnetic field applying a torque on the magnetic dipole, then from the dot product of the dipole moment and magnetic field we have a cosine term, shouldn't this give rise to all the...
  18. S

    Optical Pumping (Zeeman Effect)

    I am a bit confused about optical pumping-style experiments, and why increasing the strength of the magnetic field increases the amount of optical pumping --> increases the transmission of light through rubidium So basically we have Rubidium with energy levels like this...
  19. D

    Zeeman Effect, Angular Momentum States, Dipole vs No Dipole.

    Hi all, Just a quick theory based question regarding the Zeeman Effect. The effect of the applied magnetic field in the Zeeman effect separates the possible angular momentum states (each of which has a magnetic dipole associated with it) into different energy levels. However, if the...
  20. A

    Stern-gerlach vs zeeman effect = paradox?

    This may be a stupid question, but I am reviewing for the physics gre and can't help but see the zeeman effect and stern-gerlach experiments as contradictions. In the Zeeman effect, a neutral atom energy level will split into 3 levels (or 2 or more if take into account anomalous zeeman), but in...
  21. V

    Basic strong Zeeman effect question

    I have a question about the Zeeman effect and pertubation theory. I read in Griffiths that with the strong Zeeman effect the total angular momentum is not conserved but Lz and Sz are. I don't really understand why this is in a physical sense, because I thought that angularmomentum always was...
  22. U

    Zeeman Effect - average shift is zero?

    Homework Statement Part (a):Find the first order shift in energy Part(b): What is the degeneracy after perturbation? Find Show average shift in energy is zero. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I've shown part (a), the troubling part is part (b). Part (b) With the perturbation...
  23. U

    How Does the Zeeman Effect Impact Hydrogen Atom Energy Levels?

    Homework Statement Part (a): What's the origin of that expression? Part(b): Estimate magnetic field, give quantum numbers to specify 2p and general nl-configuration Part (c): What is the Zeeman effect on states 1s and 2s? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Part (b) H =...
  24. carllacan

    Why does the anomalous Zeeman effect not show up on some atoms?

    Why does the "anomalous" Zeeman effect not show up on some atoms? I read this: I don't see why the electron spin affected the number of lines to go up in some atoms and not in others. The electron(s) on the H atom also have spin. Thank you.
  25. L

    Zeeman Effect: Homework Questions on n=2 & 3 Energy Levels in 2T Magnetic Field

    Homework Statement Consider the splitting of the n=2 and n=3 energy levels for a hydrogen atom placed in a 2T magnetic field. Consider only the normal Zeeman effect (ignore spin). (a) What is the separation in energy between adjacent ml levels for the same l? (b) How many different...
  26. M

    Zeeman Effect Lab Homework: Measuring Rings for Bohr Magneton

    Homework Statement I'm having huge issues on the Zeeman Effect lab- the goal being to get the Bohr magneton. The problem is I do not know how to measure the rings. Can I simply measure this with a ruler? How many of the rings do I have to measure in one picture?
  27. M

    The Normal Zeeman Effect and Hydrogen States

    I'm studying the hydrogen atom and have this question. Apparently it can be solved without perturbation theory, however I'm having trouble justifying it. Homework Statement 2. The attempt at a solution Avoiding perturbation theory I simply get: E = E(n) - constant*(mh) where m...
  28. H

    The problem between two pictures that show the same(?) Zeeman effect

    Hello. I am confused with my teacher argument with the two pictures that shows the Zeeman effect. The addresses to them is http://www7b.biglobe.ne.jp/~kcy05t/paschen.html (the first pictures) http://psi.phys.wits.ac.za/teaching/Connell/phys284/2005/lecture-03/lecture_03/node14.html My...
  29. D

    How Is the Magnetic Field Calculated in the Normal Zeeman Effect?

    Homework Statement The red line of the Balmer series in hydrogen has a wavelength of 656.5 nm. Suppose that this line is observed to split into three different spectral lines when placed in a magnetic field, B, due to the Normal Zeeman Effect. What is the value of the magnetic field if the...
  30. M

    Zeeman Effect with a matrix involved

    Please refer to picture (1). This the equation of motion for an electron in a magnetic field along the z direction and moving with a certain velocity. Where Ω is the Larmor's frequency. Then refer to picture (2), that is the matrix representing the previous equation. How was this matrix...
  31. F

    Landé g factor in the Zeeman Effect

    Homework Statement A source which emits a line at 500 nm is found to exhibit the normal Zeeman e ffect when placed in a magnetic fi eld. Calculate the magnetic field given that the separation of adjacent components in the Zeeman pattern is 12.0 pm. Homework Equations E=hc/lambda...
  32. M

    Finding B-field from Zeeman effect pattern

    Hey I have this problem Homework Statement A source which emits a line at 500nm is found to exhibit the normal Zeeman effect when placed in a magnetic field. Calculate the magnetic field given that the separation of adjacent components in the Zeeman pattern is 12.0pm...
  33. T

    How does the Zeeman Effect contribute to laser cooling of atoms?

    I have a couple of questions regarding laser cooling. I should preface this by saying that I've taken a course in Modern Physics, so I don't have more than a very basic understanding of QM. In this case, I am familiar with absorption/emission lines, Zeeman effect, degeneracy and quantum numbers...
  34. R

    Why is there a central line in Zeeman effect?

    Why is there a central line when a magnet is used to split the electrons? I would have thought that since electrons have two characteristic states that one type would go one way and the other type the other way so the middle should be blank.
  35. T

    How Does the Zeeman Effect Aid in Laser Cooling of Atoms?

    I have a couple of questions regarding laser cooling. I should preface this by saying that I've taken a course in Modern Physics, so I don't have more than a very basic understanding of QM. In this case, I am familiar with absorption/emission lines, Zeeman effect, degeneracy and quantum...
  36. I

    Calculating Satellite Line Splitting in a Sunspot using the Zeeman Effect

    Homework Statement "The normal Zeeman effect splits a spectral line at frequency \nu_{0} and two satellite lines at \nu_{0} ± eB/(4\pi m_{e}). By what amount (in angstroms) are the satellite lines of the hydrogen Balmer \alpha line (\lambda_{0} = 6562.81 Å) split from the central component...
  37. A

    Trying to find references for polarization effect of Normal Zeeman Effect

    Hi, I am trying to find a resource that can explain how σ and ∏ lines obtain their polarizations. I have not found resource that actually show the calculation or solid explanation that show this.The references are usually state that σ and ∏ have circular polarization and linear polarization...
  38. N

    What Is the Correct Magnetic Field for a Strong Zeeman Effect in Sodium?

    Homework Statement Have to find the applied magnetic field for strong zeeman effect for sodium. Given three resonance line components 580nm 585nm and 590 nm Homework Equations Ezeeman=B*Bohr Magneton*ml ml= 0,1 or -1The Attempt at a Solution Change energy = hf = hc/wavelength Can't get...
  39. alemsalem

    Weak field zeeman effect, why don't we still use degenerate perturbation theory?

    the spin orbit coupling removes the degeneracy but not completely, should we still use the degenerate perturbation theory. is it because of relativistic corrections? Thanks!
  40. C

    Zeeman effect - spin orbit coupling

    As far as I know: the possible orientations that the total angular momentum can take (given my Mj) are degenerate. if we apply a magnetic field, degeneracy will be lost and different states arise. this is the zeeman effect but when looking up on google for zeeman effect, a webpage used as an...
  41. P

    Exploring the Zeeman Effect in Cadium and Other Elements

    HI I don't understand why cadium or other elements have different zeeman effect because of their electron configiration thanks
  42. fluidistic

    Zeeman effect, something I'm not understanding, about history

    With the normal Zeeman effect, I think the splitting of the emission/absorbtion lines is worth \Delta E = \mu _B B m_l. That was before they knew about the spin. When they discovered the spin they realized that in fact the energy splitting was worth \Delta E =g_l \mu _B B m_l where...
  43. fluidistic

    Magnetic resonancy, Zeeman effect

    Homework Statement A magnetic resonancy experiment is realized using hydrogen atoms in their ground state. A constant magnetic field B_0 duplicate the magnetic energy levels in the atoms and an oscillating magnetic field B_ \omega is synchronized to the frequency that corresponds to the...
  44. fluidistic

    How Does the Zeeman Effect Alter the Wavelength of Hydrogen's Paschen Lines?

    Homework Statement The \alpha lines of Paschen in the hydrogen spectrum are due to transitions n=4 \to n=3. Identify the allowed 4p \to 3d transitions and determine the change in wavelength for each transition if there's an external B field of 2T.Homework Equations \Delta E=m_l \mu _B B...
  45. K

    Understanding the Anomalous Zeeman Effect in Advanced Student Laboratories

    Homework Statement The anomalous Zeeman effect is studied in an advanced student laboratory. A spectral lamp is filled with the vapor of an unknown atom. (It is unknown to the student.) The atoms are excited to the 2D5/2 state with a high frequency electromagnetic field. When a static magnetic...
  46. K

    Normal Zeeman effect of hydrogen atoms

    Homework Statement When specially prepared Hydrogen atoms with their electrons in the 6d state are placed into a strong uniform magnetic field, the degenerate energy levels split into several levels. This is the so called normal Zeeman effect. A) Ignoring the electron spin what is the...
  47. B

    The Zeeman Effect: Determining Atomic Level Quantum Numbers

    Homework Statement Explain why the Zeeman effect can assist in the determination of the quantum numbers of atomic levels Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Not sure why this is I understand what the Zeeman effect is, and the source of the splitting on energy...
  48. H

    The normal and anomalous Zeeman effect

    Hi! I have difficulties seeing the cause that make these to concepts diffret. Haken and Wolf writes about the last one:"One speaks of the anomalous Zeeman effect when the angular momentum and magnetic moment of the two terms between which an optical transistion occurs cannot be described by just...
  49. C

    Does the Zeeman Effect Alter Clock Rates in Different Magnetic Fields?

    Lets say we emit a photon from the ground out towards the sky , and as the photon travels away from Earth it gets red-shifted . In stead of canceling the shift by using the Doppler effect like they did in the pound-rebka experiment , we use the zeeman effect to alter the discrete energy...
  50. R

    Understanding the Zeeman Effect: Internal, External, or Static?

    Hello all, I am confused with naming of the Zeeman effect (in nuclear or/and electronic levels). Is that means: 1. splitting of spectral lines due to internal magnetic field, or 2. splitting of spectral lines due to external magnetic field, or 3. splitting of spectral lines due to...