The first patent for spread spectrum communications was granted to Hedy Keisler Markey and George Antheil in 1942 (US Patent 2,292,387). Their patent was for a radio controlled torpedo that used frequency hopping between 88 different frequencies. The sequence of frequencies would be controlled by a device similar to piano rolls in player pianos. Not coincidentally, there are 88 keys on a piano. Markey was later awarded a Electronic Frontier Foundations Pioneer Award for her invention.