# Understand GR: Tips for Ancient Non-Mathematical Fossils

• sonar
In summary: It's not much different from vectors which can be defined without coordinates (a length and a direction) or with coordinates (some matrix of numbers). The only thing to remember is that in curved space, there are no position vectors, only velocity vectors.
sonar
What should an ancient old non-mathematical fossil do when trying to understand GR? I'm reading "Gravity" by Shutz, no problem so far, but understand I need to up my game. What do you all recommend? Note: by non-mathematical, I'm not up to speed in tensors, get most of what else there is. What's next without blowing me out of the water.
Note(2), anyone wanting to know practical knowledge of the physics of sound in water in regard to tactical usages, let me know.

If you can read Schutz, that's good enough!

So how does one detect a dumb hole?

I'll move from Gravity to his next one, actually gravity is interesting by not too hard.
Don't know about dumb holes, however my last boat years ago was the San Francisco which found a dumb hole (underwater mountain) off of Guam and almost sunk herself. No way sonar could hear that...

sonar said:
I'll move from Gravity to his next one, actually gravity is interesting by not too hard.
Don't know about dumb holes, however my last boat years ago was the San Francisco which found a dumb hole (underwater mountain) off of Guam and almost sunk herself. No way sonar could hear that...

You could also try J L Martin's "General Relativity" which I found very accessible and gets one doing calculations quickly.

Wow, so how did you get out of that dumb hole?

Some guys like Unruh are looking for dumb holes that are acoustic analogues of black holes.

I'll give it a shot, still want to get up to tensors, that's the only way to 'understand' GR, from what I know.
The closest thing to a dumb hole, a strong negative gradient for SVP(SSP) drives sound to the bottom, active and passive sonar can't hear while in that, unless beneath the sound source, very close aboard. Not the best place to be.

sonar said:
I'll give it a shot, still want to get up to tensors, that's the only way to 'understand' GR, from what I know.
The closest thing to a dumb hole, a strong negative gradient for SVP(SSP) drives sound to the bottom, active and passive sonar can't hear while in that, unless beneath the sound source, very close aboard. Not the best place to be.

Martin's book has tensors along with the physics.

You can also try chapter 1 of Eric Poisson's "Advanced general relativity" http://www.physics.uoguelph.ca/poisson/research/notes.html which gives a summary of tensors the "old fashioned way", and Sergei Winitzki's lecture notes in which the coordinate-independent definition of tensors comes to the fore http://homepages.physik.uni-muenchen.de/~Winitzki/T7/ .

It's not much different from vectors which can be defined without coordinates (a length and a direction) or with coordinates (some matrix of numbers). The only thing to remember is that in curved space, there are no position vectors, only velocity vectors.

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## 1. What is GR and why is it important for understanding ancient fossils?

GR, or General Relativity, is a scientific theory proposed by Albert Einstein that describes the effects of gravity as a curvature of time and space. It is important for understanding ancient fossils because it helps scientists determine the age and evolution of the Earth and its inhabitants.

## 2. Do I need to have a background in mathematics to understand GR and its implications for fossils?

No, you do not need a background in mathematics to understand the basic concepts of GR and its implications for fossils. However, a basic understanding of physics and scientific principles is helpful in comprehending the theory.

## 3. How does GR help scientists date and interpret ancient fossils?

GR helps scientists date and interpret ancient fossils by providing a framework for understanding the age of the Earth and its geological processes. It also helps scientists understand the movements of continents and changes in the Earth's climate over time, which can aid in interpreting the fossil record.

## 4. Can GR be applied to all types of fossils, or only non-mathematical ones?

GR can be applied to all types of fossils, regardless of whether they are mathematical or non-mathematical. However, it is more commonly used in the study of non-mathematical fossils, such as bones and shells, as these materials are often more abundant and easier to date.

## 5. Are there any limitations to using GR for understanding ancient fossils?

While GR is a powerful tool for understanding ancient fossils, it does have some limitations. For example, it can only provide relative dates, not exact ones, and it relies on certain assumptions about the Earth's past. Additionally, GR is just one tool among many that scientists use to study fossils, and it should be used in conjunction with other methods for a more comprehensive understanding.

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