So, trying to understand conceptually why Carbon can only have 4 bonds maximum, regardless of its formal change in a structure. My book says it's because it only has 4 orbitals, but I'm not quite sure why this is, and was wondering if someone could explain. My second question is regarding lone pairs. A typical Oxygen atom with 6 Valence would have 2 lone pairs and 2 unpaired electrons. My book says this means it can form two bonds, but my question is, why can it not make bonds through its lone pairs (could it make double bonds if it finds another atom with a lone pair?). Thank you for any help.