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Velocity of spin & electron velocity ?

  1. Sep 5, 2009 #1
    Do we know the answer s to some or all of these equations?

    1.) The radius from the centre of a nuclear to the different possible orbit of the electrons
    2.) The velocity of a protons spin
    3.) The velocity of the electrons in the different electron orbits
  2. jcsd
  3. Sep 5, 2009 #2


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    Staff: Mentor

    The electrons don't have "orbits" in the classical sense. Instead, they have probability distributions. Here are graphs of the radial probability distributions for hydrogen:


    The "spin" of a proton or other subatomic particle doesn't correspond to a classical rotational velocity, as far as we know.

    Similar to (1), we know only probability distributions for the momentum of the electron. I don't happen to have any graphs handy.
  4. Sep 6, 2009 #3
  5. Sep 6, 2009 #4
    alpha is said to be the ratio of the speed of the electron in the Bohr atom to the speed of light.

    1/137. 35999
  6. Sep 6, 2009 #5
    In Sommerfeld theory, the fine structure was explained by the relativistic mass change of the electrons.

    Atomic Physics by Max Born
    In page 120, It is written as follows,

    This is called the fine structure of the spectrum lines.
    Its theory was given by Sommerfeld for the case of atoms of the hydrogen type
    (H, He+, Li++),
    and was first tested by Fowler and Paschen on the spectrum of singly ionized helium (He+), which was found in complete agreement with the theory.

    And the elecron velocity was also written in this link.
    A nucleus with a large charge will cause an electron to have a high velocity. A higher electron velocity means an increased electron relativistic mass, as a result the electrons will be near the nucleus more of the time and thereby contract the radius for small principal quantum numbers. Color of Gold ..... can be explained by the relativistic effect (by the high velocity of the electron).

    I also want to know whether the electron has the velocity or not.
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