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Exact differential

by zeshkani
Tags: differential, exact
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zeshkani
#1
Sep2-07, 03:27 PM
P: 29
how would i show that this is the exact differential

z=xy-y+lnx+2
dz= (y+ 0)dx + (x-1)dy (i hope the total differential is right)

so how would i show that dz is the exact differential ???
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quasar987
#2
Sep2-07, 03:36 PM
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The definition of the total differential of a function f(x,y) is the expression

[tex]df=\frac{\partial f}{\partial x}dx+\frac{\partial f}{\partial y}dy[/tex]

Now with the z you're given, is the expression for dz correct? That is to say, is

[tex]\frac{\partial z}{\partial x}=(y+0)[/tex]

and

[tex]\frac{\partial z}{\partial y}=(x-1)[/tex]

??
zeshkani
#3
Sep2-07, 03:39 PM
P: 29
i believe dz is correct because i used partial differentials to solve it, and i hope its correct

quasar987
#4
Sep2-07, 04:21 PM
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Exact differential

what is the derivative of ln(x)?
HallsofIvy
#5
Sep3-07, 05:55 AM
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Once you fixed the derivative of ln x thing, the fact that dz is the total derivative of z pretty much means it is an "exact" differential. That's the definition of "exact" differential!
zeshkani
#6
Sep3-07, 01:35 PM
P: 29
thx and the derivative of lnx is just 1/x
HallsofIvy
#7
Sep3-07, 04:39 PM
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Yes.
z=xy-y+lnx+2 so
dz= (y+ 1/x)dx + (x-1)dy

And that is an "exact" differential precisely because it is the differential of z.

Now suppose you were given the differential form (y+ 1/x)dx+ (x- 1)dy without having been given z. How would you determine whether it was an exact differential?
If
[tex](y+ 1/x)= \frac{\partial z}{\partial x}[/tex]
for some function z and
[tex]x-1= \frac{\partial z}{\partial y}[/tex]
then
[tex]\frac{\partial(y+ 1/x)}{\partial y}= \frac{\partial^2 z}{\partial x\partial y}[/tex]
and
[tex]\frac{\partial(x-1)}{\partial x}= \frac{\partial^2 z}{\partial y\partial x}[/tex]
and so must be equal. Fortunately, it is easy to see that each second derivative is 1 and so they are in fact equal.
Okay, now, how would we find z? Knowing that
[tex]x-1= \frac{\partial z}{\partial y}[/tex]
integrating with respect to y (treating x as a constant) we get z= xy- y+ C, except that, since we are treating x as a constant, that "constant of integration", C, may depend on x: z= xy- y+ C(x). Differentiating that with respect to x,
[tex]\frac{\partial z}{\partial x}= y+ C'(x)= y+ 1/x[/tex]
Notice that the "y" terms cancel (it was the "cross condition" above that guarenteed that) and so we have C'(x)= 1/x. Then C(x)= ln(x)+ C where "C" now really is a constant.
Any z(x,y)= xy- y+ ln(x)+ C satisfies dz= (y+ 1/x)dx+ (x-1)dy.


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