# Circuit Analysis of a Positive Offset Clamping Diode Circuit

by stn0091
Tags: analysis, circuit, clamping, diode, offset, positive
 P: 7 1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Plot the waveforms for capacitor voltage VC, output voltage Vo, and diode voltage Vd given that Vs is a 20 Vpp triangle wave with period T. Use CVD model with diode VON = 0.7 V. 2. Relevant equations KVLs? 3. The attempt at a solution From my basic understanding of a clamper, I can see that the output is offset by +2 V. Thus Vo begins at +2v, Vc begins at -2V, and the diode voltage begins at 0V and heads towards -10V (off, reverse bias). However, I can't manage to show this analytically. KVL around the left side gives: Vs - Vc + Vd - 2V = 0 At the same time, I know that Vo + Vd - 2 = 0. I can't really solve anything with just these two equations though. I can say that Vs - Vc = Vo, but these equations just take me in circles. Again, I understand that Vo starts at 2V and rises in step with Vs. With that said, Vo = 12 V at when Vs reaches its first 10V peak. At T/2 when the input becomes negative, the diode turns on and the capacitor can start charging. With the diode on, output Vo is clamped to 2V - 0.7V = 1.3V. The 0.7V is the diode drop from the CVD model. It stays on until 3T/4. By that point, the capacitor has charged to -11.3V. From 3T/4 onwards, diode remains off. Capacitor has no discharge path and remains at -11.3V. At the second 10V peak, Vo is 21.3V. I just don't know how to show ANY of that with work, which doesn't earn me any points when I have to analyze this on a test. Attached Thumbnails
 HW Helper Thanks P: 5,497 Hi stn0091. Do you have simulation software that you can construct this and see precisely what it does? It helps a lot when you know what you are aiming to explain. There can be a big difference between how a circuit behaves for the first so many cycles, and how it operates well down the track once it has settled down to a steady state.
 P: 7 Yes, I simulated the circuit using PSPICE. Just from observation of the circuit, I can tell how it behaves for the first few cycles, even without the simulation. I just can't manage to write it down with some work. At 0 seconds, is the circuit assumed to be in DC steady state? Is it valid if I say the entire circuit is assumed to have been off for a long period of time such that the capacitor is discharged and open and there is no current anywhere in the circuit? If that's the case, that might help a bit. Under DCSS at 0-: Vs = 0V Vc = Vs - Vo Vo = -Vd + 2 There is no current, so there's no drop across the diode so Vd = 0V. Working back up that list up equations, Vo = 2V Vc = -2V Those numbers agree with my intuitive understanding of the circuit and what PSPICE says. Question: I said that the capacitor was fully discharged at DCSS for t = 0-. How can Vc = -2V in that case? Shouldn't it be zero? Or does "discharged" just mean any value < 0? This stuff from basic circuits is really throwing me off. That was all at DCSS at 0- seconds. Now turn Vs on. Diode will be in reverse bias so the circuit is still "off." With KVL, I again have: Vs - Vc - Vo = 0 Capacitor has no path so Vc remains constant at -2V. Let's say I'm at the first 10V peak at T/4 seconds. 10 - (-2) - Vo = 0 Vo = 12V Is that all logically sound so far? Are my assumptions valid?
HW Helper
Thanks
P: 5,497
Circuit Analysis of a Positive Offset Clamping Diode Circuit

 Quote by stn0091 Yes, I simulated the circuit using PSPICE.
Umm, I was hinting that you should post a graph of v₀(t) over multiple cycles. This might allow us to cut to the chase with the explanation.
 At 0 seconds, is the circuit assumed to be in DC steady state? Is it valid if I say the entire circuit is assumed to have been off for a long period of time such that the capacitor is discharged and open and there is no current anywhere in the circuit?
For this circuit, the only current path includes the capacitor, and since we can't have a steady current into a capacitor without its voltage soaring towards infinity, then, yes, the current must have zeroed.
 Question: I said that the capacitor was fully discharged at DCSS for t = 0-. How can Vc = -2V in that case? Shouldn't it be zero? Or does "discharged" just mean any value < 0? This stuff from basic circuits is really throwing me off.
The 2V source is not part of the input and is not switched in at t=0; that 2V is always present so it takes part in determining the equilibrium conditions before t=0.
 Capacitor has no path so Vc remains constant at -2V. Let's say I'm at the first 10V peak at T/4 seconds. 10 - (-2) - Vo = 0 Vo = 12V Is that all logically sound so far? Are my assumptions valid?
It's right so far.

We need your graph of v₀(t).
 P: 7 Not exactly a triangle wave, but it still follows the same general shape. Top/pink is Vo, middle/purple is Vs, bottom/red is Vc. Attached Thumbnails
 HW Helper Thanks P: 5,497 Are those waveforms close to what you expected to find? Can you explain what they show, and some of their features?
 P: 8 This is a clamper circuit.When the input is at its negative peak,the diode is on and the capacitor is charged opposite to what is shown in the circuit.The capacitor is charged to V=20+2-0.7=21.3V. Now when the input is at its positive peak,the diode is off and the capacitor stays at the same charged voltage. The output in first case is (2-0.7)V=1.3V.Voltage across diode is 0.7V The output in second case is 21.3+10=31.3V.Across diode is also 31.3V since open circuit. The output is never negative.

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