What is Experiment design: Definition and 29 Discussions

The design of experiments (DOE, DOX, or experimental design) is the design of any task that aims to describe and explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. The term is generally associated with experiments in which the design introduces conditions that directly affect the variation, but may also refer to the design of quasi-experiments, in which natural conditions that influence the variation are selected for observation.
In its simplest form, an experiment aims at predicting the outcome by introducing a change of the preconditions, which is represented by one or more independent variables, also referred to as "input variables" or "predictor variables." The change in one or more independent variables is generally hypothesized to result in a change in one or more dependent variables, also referred to as "output variables" or "response variables." The experimental design may also identify control variables that must be held constant to prevent external factors from affecting the results. Experimental design involves not only the selection of suitable independent, dependent, and control variables, but planning the delivery of the experiment under statistically optimal conditions given the constraints of available resources. There are multiple approaches for determining the set of design points (unique combinations of the settings of the independent variables) to be used in the experiment.
Main concerns in experimental design include the establishment of validity, reliability, and replicability. For example, these concerns can be partially addressed by carefully choosing the independent variable, reducing the risk of measurement error, and ensuring that the documentation of the method is sufficiently detailed. Related concerns include achieving appropriate levels of statistical power and sensitivity.
Correctly designed experiments advance knowledge in the natural and social sciences and engineering. Other applications include marketing and policy making. The study of the design of experiments is an important topic in metascience.

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  1. Sciencemaster

    I Observational Astronomy Project Ideas to Show Special Relativity

    This semester, I'm taking a class on Observational Astronomy which requires us to perform observations for a final project over the course of roughly a month (mid-March to Mid-april, although it could be a bit longer or shorter). As we get to choose the project, I'd like to take this opportunity...
  2. Sciencemaster

    Misc. DIY Experiment of Special Relativistic Effects?

    I'd like to perform an experiment that will build intuition for Special Relativity in the real world. While I do believe that it occurs in the real world, I'd like to be able to prove it for myself, and I feel that such an experiment would help others on this forum as well. Is there an...
  3. SBrownJC

    EE: How to heat a magnet with a wire while levitating a superconductor?

    Hi I'm doing my extended essay (like a research paper) for the IB and I'm having a bit of trouble with my setup and data process. The plan for my experiment goes something like this: I have a magnet wrapped in wire strapped to a battery and a superconductor in liquid nitrogen. After levitating...
  4. billyt_

    Experimental investigation of Faraday's Law of Induction

    Looking at how the induced EMF is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux, intuitively it seems that if I increase the velocity of the magnet through the solenoid, i.e. drop it from a higher height, the EMF should increase as well. However, I am unsure if this is true and can't seem...
  5. K

    Measuring the Distance between the Fringes of a Diffraction Grating

    I have been preparing for a physics practical on diffraction. More specifically, we will use a CD as a transmission grating (by peeling off the reflective layer), and measure the distance between the fringes for a specific distance between the CD and the viewing wall. However, it is unclear...
  6. L

    Misc. Can anyone suggest a suitable material for a Foucault pendulum platform?

    I'm about to pick up again on a project started last summer to build a Foucault pendulum that will fit on, or at least, above a desk in an ordinary room. This was described, with photographs in...
  7. J

    Experimental procedure for growing piezoelectric crystals

    At school I and a handful of other kids are devising an experiment to send up to ISS to test it over a period of 30 days next year. (Yep, we're quite fortunate to have this opportunity!) We've chosen to grow piezoelectric crystals using (super)saturated solution of the piezoelectric crystal...
  8. Natus Homonymus

    Need equipment and ideas for an experiment

    I require balls (about the size of a small marble) of different masses. I have no idea how to go about this and your help would be greatly appreciated! I also need an hemisphere (about 20cm in radius). I though of 3D printing the same, and it's extremely expensive. Any alternative ideas...
  9. Irl495

    Minimum gas pressure to measure its volume with an eudiometer

    Hello, As you can see in the attached hand drawing+calculation, my question concerns the typical method of evolved gas volume measurement by water displacement in an inverted graduated cylinder or "eudiometer". Once a bubble (cavity to be precise) of gas leaves the end of the tube through...
  10. physea

    2^k factorial experiment design

    Hello! In this webpage: https://onlinecourses.science.psu.edu/stat503/node/35 it describes the 2^k factorial experiment design. I understand that k is the number of factors that we are investigating (in this case two, a and b), 2 are the levels of each factor (+/-) and 2^k=4 is the number of...
  11. T

    I Experimentally measure gravitational force

    Can we experimentally measure the very weak gravitational force between two objects just like we can detect magnetic field lines by a deflecting compass.
  12. C

    Practical method to measure the rate of a luminol reaction

    I was wondering how I could measure the rate constant k for chemiluminescence reaction of luminol (when oxidised by H2O2. I was told that I can use a lux meter that measures the intensity of light emitted, but I'm not so sure how this can be done since the equation calculating the rate constant...
  13. J

    Can a piezoelectric create dynamic pressure in oil fluid for energy harvesting?

    Would it be possible to do a experimental setup where I create a dynamic pressure (10-500 Hz) of around 0.1-2 MPa, using a high force piezoelectric pushing on a piston on a Small volume of oil fluid. There is this paper, where the authors create a pressure wave of around 170 KPa using a...
  14. H

    Ideas for astrophysics investigation/experiment?

    Hi! I need to find multiple ideas for a physics investigation relating to astrophysics. The investigation is going to be like a lab report and must include data analysis and be maximum 2000 words. I have already thought of one idea: Investigating the relationship between the size and the...
  15. X

    I What is the C_l in the Fisher Matrix For An CMB Survey?

    I'm trying to construct a Fisher Forecast for the upcoming S4 CMB survey. I don't understand what the C_l is in this formula. It is H(z) and the Angular Distance? Or is it some covariance matrix and if it is a covariance matrix how do I calculate it considering the experiment hasn't been done...
  16. A

    Electromagnetic Ring Expansion Test

    If my professor tasked me with finding out where to find the materials for setting up an electromagnetic ring expansion test, where is a good place to start? Generally, what is a good procedure to follow when setting up an experiment? I am not very experienced but I would like to learn. The...
  17. X

    A Fisher Forecasting For EUCLID Survey Help

    I'm trying to recreate the results of this paper https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.08016.pdf to obtain the constraints for the matter density and Hubble constant h. However every time I try to create there results my Fisher Matrix has elements of order of 10^14 which is far to high. I suspect this is...
  18. J

    Experimental details -- Heating hydrated barium nitrate

    Homework Statement [/B] Q- Hydrated barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2.4H2O, is strongly heated in a boiling tube and the following changes occur. Stage 1: The white solid forms a clear colourless solution. Stage 2: Condensation forms around the mouth of the boiling tube and a white solid starts to form...
  19. pioneerboy

    Wind Flow Experiments: DIY Tutorials and Ideas

    I'd like to experimentally simulate air flow turbulences around obstacles. Building the obstacles in one thing, but providing a well characterised flow (and mix it with something visible like smoke...) is something else. In general, I think the whole idea is easier to acomplish compared to fluid...
  20. Bolhuso

    I Use of polarization to experimentally check photon mass?

    Hi all! I've checked Wikipedia and a related thread regarding experimentally measuring an upper limit for the photon rest mass: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon#Experimental_checks_on_photon_mass https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/photon-rest-mass-0-wasnt-proven-experimentally.792583/ I...
  21. F

    A Experiment design FTL particle though magnetic field

    Hi. I was browsing Wikipedia on a topic, went to magnetic bearings, etc etc...ended up on synchrotron radiation then the phrase about how a moving or accelerat/ing/ed particle passing through a magnetic field generates electromagnetic radiation. Then I has a revelation. How to get a particle...
  22. G

    Magnet Experiment: Investigating Force & Distance

    Hello PF! I am about to conduct a physics experiment to write my high school level paper on. I initially was going to investigate the Gaussian Gun, but my physics teacher has said that I need to have real life, practical applications of the model, and to also have a variable I can change and...
  23. OdysseasTS

    Schools Beamline for schools, Greek Delegation

    Hey! So I found this ( http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2014/11/beamline-schools-competition-2015-launches-today ) and my high school's physics teachers liked the concept! So I've created a team to participate in this years contest. We were thinking to do something relevant with antimatter...
  24. Logan Rudd

    Upper division physics lab -- Project ideas

    As an experimentalist, I am very excited to be taking my first upper division physics lab next semester! The course covers basic electronics (filters, diodes, transistors, op-amps, analog & digital circuits, D/A conversion, and LabView Programming, etc.) and measurement techniques with an...
  25. U

    Measuring Velocity based on change in Pressure

    Homework Statement There is an air-tight 1L Canister filled with 90% water and 10% N2O. This canister is attached to some clear tubing which is not entirely air-tight. At the end of this tubing are some tungsten particles averaging ~1µm in diameter with total mass of 60mg. The contraption is...
  26. R

    Water treatment experiment design

    hello this is the first time I'm using this forum so I hope that my post is in the right sub-forum I'm working now on a project for water treatment , I don't know exactly how to design the setup of the experiment. what is needed 1- 50l feed water tank connected with a pipe , I have to...
  27. K

    Egg drop experiment design project

    I have to design an egg drop experiment for a teaching project. I'll describe the project and how everything works, then the students have about half an hour to create a container to shelter the egg so that it doesn't break from a fall of about 20 feet. The sticking point is the time limit. I...
  28. G

    Is quantum indeterminacy a result of experiment design?

    Is "quantum indeterminacy" a result of experiment design? Stemming from a debate about free will, I, a total lay person, have been doing some reading on quantum indeterminacy (QI). I have come up with some questions, I hope this forum is an appropriate place for them. Basically the question...