What is Fluorine: Definition and 14 Discussions

Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists at standard conditions as a highly toxic, pale yellow diatomic gas. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive, as it reacts with all other elements, except for argon, neon, and helium.
Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II.
Owing to the expense of refining pure fluorine, most commercial applications use fluorine compounds, with about half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite, which plays a key role in aluminium refining. Molecules containing a carbon–fluorine bond often have very high chemical and thermal stability; their major uses are as refrigerants, electrical insulation and cookware, the last as PTFE (Teflon). Pharmaceuticals such as atorvastatin and fluoxetine contain C−F bonds. The fluoride ion from dissolved fluoride salts inhibits dental cavities, and so finds use in toothpaste and water fluoridation. Global fluorochemical sales amount to more than US$15 billion a year.
Fluorocarbon gases are generally greenhouse gases with global-warming potentials 100 to 23,500 times that of carbon dioxide, SF6 having the highest global warming potential of any known substance. Organofluorine compounds often persist in the environment due to the strength of the carbon–fluorine bond. Fluorine has no known metabolic role in mammals; a few plants and sea sponges synthesize organofluorine poisons (most often monofluoroacetates) that help deter predation.

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  1. theycallmevirgo

    What is the basis for Toyota's fluorine battery claims?

    Google top result says Toyota is researching Fluorine batteries that they claim will have 7x energy density of LiIon. However my textbook table of reduction potential gives lithium as higher than fluorine. Any idea what they base their claims on? Thanks Joe
  2. Epsilon Eridani

    Turning oxygen into fluorine in our atmosphere

    Summary:: Hypothetical discussion of a method to turn oxygen into fluorine through the use of another chemical and also discussing the biological effects of fluorine. Hello, I'd like to start this by saying my knowledge of chemistry is extremely basic. I barely graduated chemistry in high...
  3. J

    Enthelpy of combustion of acetylene and fluorine

    Hi Folks, I have been trying to find data on the enthalpy of combustion of acetylene and fluorine. I have found the data for oxygen but am curious about the use of pure fluorine in stochiometric conditions and the resulting upper heating value when the oxidant is acetylene. I am happy to...
  4. Nouki

    A Nuclear spin of Fluorine 19

    Can anyone explain to me why angular momentum of F-19 equals to J=1/2, but if we calculate J with the shell model the result is J=5/2. Thank you
  5. TheExibo

    How does fluorine actually help prevent tooth decay?

    Fluorine ions are negatively charged, and help prevent tooth decay by forming fluoraptite when substituting the lost hydroxide ions in the tooth enamel. Since they are both negative, it is successfully substituted. However, it was told that acid on the tooth causes that decay. My question is...
  6. C

    How Neutrinos Prevent Cavities

    They make fluorine, according to a large new study. Link: ScienceNOW
  7. S

    Why is the fluorine atom a poor hydrogen bond acceptor?

    My notes states that fluorine is too highly electronegative and hence clings on too tightly to its lone pair of electrons and so it cannot accept hydrogen bonds as well. However, it also stated that a hydrogen bond will be stronger if the electron density on the electron rich atom the stronger...
  8. Clear Mind

    What is the Nuclear Spin of Fluorine-19 and How is it Calculated?

    I was trying to calculate the ##^{19}_{9}F_{10}## nuclear spin using the nuclear shell method. From what i know the nuclear spin for a nucleous with odd ##A## is the total angular momentum ##J## of the stand-alone nucleon: P: ##(1d_{5 \backslash 2})^1## (stand-alone nucleon) N: ##(1d_{5...
  9. M

    Why is fluorine more electronegative than sodium?

    I've learned the trends in electronegativity, but why is fluorine more electronegative than sodium? What is the real reasoning behind it?
  10. J

    Iodine and fluorine leaving group

    A question in my test asked which of the acyl halide will hydrolyse faster in an aqueous solution of NaOH Well the asnwer is acyl iodide becasue iodine is a better leaving group( the solution says so) But i don't understand - fluorine will be hydrated to the greatest extent so removal of...
  11. G

    Understanding Hydrogen Bonding in Water and Fluorine: A Comparison

    Every water molecule is H-bonded with up to four other molecules (two through its two lone pairs, and two through its two hydrogen atoms. These 4 intermolecular hydrogen bonds are what contribute to water's high boiling point.. My textbook compares this with Fluorine, which it says can...
  12. S

    Questions on synthesizing Fluorine 18

    I have a couple questions but first some background: Fluorine 18 is used in PET scans as a beta+ emitter. Generally it is created with an 11-18 MeV cyclotron by bombarding Oxygen 18 with protons. I read a paper that said there was an alternative way to produce F 18 by the NEON-20(DEUTERON...
  13. I

    Why does neutral fluorine so reactive?

    Hi, I'm a novice at quantum and I was just wondering why an electrically neutral fluorine atom needs to absorb an electron to make itself electrically unbalanced with a new -1 charge? In our general chemistry class, the explanation was that the fluorine atom for some unexplained...
  14. G

    Why does fluorine make compounds volatile?

    In medicinal chemistry fluorine atoms are often used on scaffolds in order to increase metabolic stability of a particular compound. The problem with working with reactants that contain fluorine is that they are a lot of times very volatile. For example, I am thinking along the lines of...