What is Systematic: Definition and 40 Discussions

Systematic reviews are a type of review that uses repeatable analytical methods to collect secondary data and analyse it. Systematic reviews are a type of evidence synthesis which formulate research questions that are broad or narrow in scope, and identify and synthesize data that directly relate to the systematic review question. While some people might associate 'systematic review' with 'meta-analysis', there are multiple kinds of review which can be defined as 'systematic' which do not involve a meta-analysis. Some systematic reviews critically appraise research studies, and synthesize findings qualitatively or quantitatively. Systematic reviews are often designed to provide an exhaustive summary of current evidence relevant to a research question. For example, systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials are an important way of informing evidence-based medicine, and a review of existing studies is often quicker and cheaper than embarking on a new study.
While systematic reviews are often applied in the biomedical or healthcare context, they can be used in other areas where an assessment of a precisely defined subject would be helpful. Systematic reviews may examine clinical tests, public health interventions, environmental interventions, social interventions, adverse effects, qualitative evidence syntheses, methodological reviews, policy reviews, and economic evaluations.An understanding of systematic reviews and how to implement them in practice is highly recommended for professionals involved in the delivery of health care, public health and public policy.

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  1. Govind

    I What is the correct definition of measurement uncertainty?

    I have some confusion regarding Measurement Uncertainity. In some books/articles it is defined wrt true value as "Uncertainty in the average of measurements is the range in which true value is most likely to fall , when there is no bias or systematic component of error is involved in...
  2. C

    Uncertainty: Systematic & Random

    I am thinking that it might could be absolute uncertainty = systematic uncertainty + random uncertainty. Many thanks!
  3. S

    Systematic review of plant sex terms?

    Where could you find a systematic review of terms specifying the possible sex structures of plant populations? This https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_reproductive_morphology has a list of 30 terms, arranged by alphabet not meaning, containing many synonyms... It seems to me that a plant...
  4. M

    I Systematic uncertainties in linear fit

    Hello! I have some data points ##(x,y)##, with some uncertainties on y that are statistical ##dy_1## and some systematic ##dy_2##. I want to fit this data using a linear function. How exactly should I deal with the different types of uncertainties? Can I just add them in quadrature and perform...
  5. S

    When did aircraft begin using systematic glide paths?

    From watching internet videos about air crash investigations, I gather that modern airliners follow a set "glide path" as they land. When, in the history of aircraft, did such a procedure begin? For example, did the large planes of WW2 use printed documents or radio beacons that defined a...
  6. andacbaba123

    Meter Stick Lab Systematic Error

    Hello everyone! In class, we made a lab. The lab was basically first measuring a mass. Then, we found a meter stick's center of mass by finding the point where the stick was balanced. After that, we hanged the mass and changed the fulcrum point. We balanced it again and the torque equation gave...
  7. K

    I How Should Systematic Errors Be Estimated When Experiment Results Differ?

    Hello! I am a bit confused about estimating the systematic error (I think it is systematic) from an experiment. Here is a (simplified) description of it. Assume that 2 groups measure the length of a cube with 2 different rulers, which, due to some effects give slightly different results (for...
  8. M

    I Confused about systematic errors

    Hello! I am a bit confused about the systematic errors in experiments. For example, say that a mass scale was not calibrated and indicates 1g bigger all the time and I want to publish a paper in which to quote some measurements made with that scale. Let's assume that the value obtained, without...
  9. A

    I Muon lifetime measurement experiment

    Hello everybody! I have a question regarding my physics laboratory at the university. I am performing the measure of muon lifetime. The setup is quite standard (coincidence measurement with plastic scintillators). My question is about the time resolution. I have tried to see if the time...
  10. J

    I Identifying & Accounting for Systematic Error in Scales with 1mg Capacity

    Hi everyone, I have a scale that should weight as low as 1mg, if there was a systematic error how could I identify it and include it in my calculations?
  11. Photonino

    I Why do systematic uncertainties disappear using ratios?

    Hello, I often hear the phrase "Well, since you are taking a ratio bin-by-bin, you don't have to care about the luminosity syst. uncertainty and the trigger efficiency syst. uncertainty". I think I understand qualitatively why this is the case (It cancels out in the ratio, since both...
  12. S

    I Systematic Redshift: Exploring Mg II Uses

    Hi everyone, I am new to observations and observational terms! I am reading the paper "constraining the time variation of the fine-structure constant" by Srianand et. al in the section "constraining alpha with QSO absorption lines" there is a sentence saying "... rest wavelengths of MG II ...
  13. J

    Measuring 'g' and systematic errors

    Homework Statement Figure 2.2 (attached) shows a graph of distance against time squared for a ball bearing falling through the air. In accordance with s = ut + 1/2 a t^2 the graph should be a straight line through the origin. Explain how a systematic error in s and t could lead to the graph not...
  14. I

    Finding Formulas from Systematic Names: How Does the Number in Parentheses Help?

    Homework Statement Sodium chlorate(I) Sodium chlorate(V) Potassium nitride(III) Phosphorus(III) chloride Magnesium iodate(I) Homework Equations None The Attempt at a Solution I know the number in the bracket refers to what's before it, i.e. in sodium chlorate(V), the (V) means that the...
  15. S

    Pendulum experiment systematic errors

    Homework Statement So we had to the simple pendulum experiment and were measuring the effect of the length of the pendulum on its period of motion. However, our results produced a line of best fit that was significantly higher than the expected line of best fit (with length vs period squared)...
  16. P

    Is there any systematic approach to calculate friction?

    Suppose there are a number of objects on top of each other and the bottom one being on top of a frictionless surface. The masses of all of them are given. The coefficients of friction between all surfaces of contact are given. And, the forces acting on each block are given (It's not necessary...
  17. R

    Systematic treatment of equilibrium

    Homework Statement Determine [Zn2+], [CN–], and [HCN] in a saturated solution of Zn(CN)2 with a fixed pH of 1.060. The Ksp for Zn(CN)2 is 3.0 × 10–16. The Ka for HCN is 6.2 × 10–10. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I don't have a phone or camera right now to take a picture of my...
  18. V

    A Systematic study comparing cosmological models?

    Hi, my question is if there exists a study systematically comparing different cosmological models in how well they fit the same standard cosmological data sets (CMB, luminosity, BOA, SNe, lensing,...). I can find very little besides LCDM. In the rare case of a comparison, it leads to...
  19. S

    Errors: Random, Systematic, and Human

    Homework Statement Hello! In our class, we just completed a lab on momentum and energy conservation in collisions. It was a computer simulation. Although, for the lab report, the teacher wants us to write the random, systematic, and human errors. Can someone describe what each error means? What...
  20. N

    Systematic way of extending a set to a basis

    Homework Statement I want to extend the below U set of vectors to R4. u1 = (0, 0, 0, -4), u2 = (0, 0, -4, 3), u3 = (3, 2, 3, -2). The Attempt at a Solution For a set of vectors to form a basis for Rn, the vectors must be LI and spans Rn(has n vectors) u1, u2 and u3 are...
  21. marcus

    Systematic covariant QG, Engle style

    This thread is in part belated appreciation of J.S.Engle's seemingly orderly systematic way of doing research, and good writing style. I'm not kidding: a clear widely understandable writing style helps a lot. If you want a well-written review (from basics to latest) of spinfoams he has one here...
  22. S

    Difference between systematic and random errors

    I learned that random errors cannot be controlled and cannot be eliminated but only be reduced (averaging allows a result that is below the accepted answer to be accounted for by another result that is higher than the accepted result) and so it would cause bad precision. While systematic errors...
  23. B

    Systematic Treatment of Molar Solubility

    How do we systematically calculate the molar solubility of a substance with regards to its Ksp? In other words, where does the value of "molar solubility" fit into the equilibrium calculations? This should build up so that I can understand how to systematically treat the common ion effect...
  24. Greg Bernhardt

    Recommendation of a good systematic particle physics book

    Author: Brian Martin Title: Nuclear and Particle Physics Amazon Link: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0470742747/?tag=pfamazon01-20 Prerequisities: Contents: Table of Contents Preface to Second Edition. Notes. 1. Basic Concepts. 1.1 History. 1.2 Relativity and Antiparticles...
  25. C

    Systematic vs Random Errors or Quality of Data

    Both the copper wire and the light bulb became hotter and hotter when a current was constantly passing through them, resulting in an increase in their resistances, which in turn lowering the value of the current through the conductor. (I did not allow time for both the wire and the light bulb to...
  26. A

    Analytical Chemistry - Systematic Treatment of Equilibrum

    Homework Statement Calculate the molar solubility of Ag2C2O4 (silver oxalate) in a solution that has a fixed H3O+ concentration of 1.0 x 10^-6 M. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I found the pertinent reactions, the charge balance and the mass balance so far, but I...
  27. T

    What is a systematic method to solve this Diophantine equation?

    Homework Statement Suppose you spend $12.30 on chocolate bars and chips. If chocolate bars cost $1.20 and each bag of chips cost $2.50, how many bags of chips did you buy? *Both the number of chocolate bars and bags of chips must be positive. Homework Equations 12.30 = 1.20x + 2.50y The...
  28. H

    Understanding SELEX to Systematic Evolution of Ligands

    Could someone explain SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) or at least direct me to a good resource online because so far I have'nt found a decent explanation or website regarding SELEX online.
  29. O

    An inquiry on solving systematic equation

    Let's say we have two equations: ax+by+c=0 dx+ey+f=0 We often find the point of intersection by substitution or elemination. If we were to solve by elemination, we either add or substract the two equations (or manipulate them) to eleminate one variable, in order to express the other variable...
  30. A

    Is Intrinsic Uncertainty in Measurement Tools Systematic or Random?

    I have a coworker who is very old and set in their ways, he has been causing problems in the department in many ways and thinks everything that he does is correct. I'm currently in a debate with him over error analysis, (this includes a lot of small issues and some larger ones). Firstly, he...
  31. M

    Introduction to systematic design

    Homework Statement I'm asked to design a small engineering component/part/machine of your choice.I need an idea of what to design or a starting point Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
  32. N

    Young's doublt slit experiment - Systematic and random errors -

    Young's doublt slit experiment - Systematic and random errors - URGENT! Homework Statement Can anybody think of any other systematic and/or random errors for young's double slit experiment when using it calculate the wavelength of a light source? I have an inclass prac write up tomorrow and...
  33. J

    Finding frequencies of normal modes with the systematic method

    I am having problems understanding the "systematic method" for determining the frequencies and amplitude ratios of normal modes when a system has more than one degree of freedom. I think I initially have problems setting up the differential equation that describes the motion. Here is the...
  34. Y

    Differential geometry reconstructed: a unified systematic framework

    The first few sections of this book gave me a good sense of the solid foundation that the author is building in this book. While it may be review for many, this guy writes so well, it's a pleasure to read...
  35. M

    What are the systematic names of ATP?

    I have a few questions about ATP. what are the systematic names of ATP? are they the IUPAC NAMES? answer: 5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl) -3,4-dihydroxy-oxolan-2-yl methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl oxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl oxyphosphonic acid where can I find some information about reaction of ATP...
  36. K

    Uncovering the Truth: The Difference Between Random and Systematic Errors

    A human error, is it random or systematic error?
  37. G

    Understanding Systematic and Random Errors in Scientific Measurements

    Hi just a quick question. :confused: What are systematic and random errors? Are systematic errors, ones where you use equipment which is not 100% accurate. For example using a ruler which is accurate to +/- 0.1mm? Are random errors ones where the experiment is done slightly different...
  38. K

    Modular Arithmetic, and systematic approach.

    Hi, Can somebody drill me on the "congruences and modular arithmetic"? I know it is a big topic, but I think I am missing "something" in my knowledge... These things seem very unusual to me, and makes no sense sometimes. Find smallest integer n, where: 3^n \equiv 1 (mod 7) Is there a...
  39. S

    Is it possible to do calculations for systematic errors?

    Are percentage apparatus errors also systematic errors?
  40. S

    Deal with tension problems in a systematic way?

    Something about tensions throws me off. I can never seem to get tension problems. A freight train consists of 250 cars each of mass 64 metric tons. The acceleration of the train is a=0.043m/s2. What is the tension in the coupling that holds the first car to the locomotive? the last car...