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1) So at the ground state, a bound electron has -13.6eV energy. Now, say there was a photon with 14eV fired at it... would the electron escape?

I mean, I'm asking this because I hear that only discrete amounts of energy are accepted, and that a 12.5eV photon, for example, wouldn't be able to get the electron in the ground state to any other states because of quantization or something!

Can someone elaborate? (This totally confuses me)

2) I'm hearing things about deBroglie saying that electrons have to be standing waves or something? What does this mean?

I mean, I know that electrons have wave properties, according to deBroglie, and because of that the wavelength of each electron has to be an integer multiple of the circumference of its orbit, so that it doesn't interfere with itself. I don't know if that has anything to do with standing waves though...

Also, what about when you have 2 electrons in one energy level? How does that work?

3) Exactly how did the Franck Hertz experiment prove Bohr's model correct?

4) How exactly do we obtain the light spectra from atoms? Is it just a matter of exciting the electrons, allowing them to then go to some higher energy level, then come back down and break up the emitted light? (Which would mean that the observed frequencies of light would correspond to every possible energy level jump? e.g. from n=4 to n=1 would yield light of frequencies corresponding to jumps from 4->3, 4->2, 3->2, 3->1, 4->1, etc?)

Thanks for any responses.