1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Consider the impact of a crash on the people inside a motor vehicle. What modifications can be made to a car to improve their safety. Describe the physics involved in the modifications. 2. Relevant equations Assumedly Force = mass x accelleration. KE = 1/2 mass x velocity^2 work = force x distance Conservation of energy. 3. The attempt at a solution The first modification that crossed my mind was the crumple zone. I have a vague idea of how it works; the front of the car is designed to deform thus absorbing some of the energy. But I'm not sure of the specifics of the physics behind it. Does it work because it gives the car more time to reduce its speed thus reducing the decelleration. Does it work by increasing the reletive "distance" by which the force acts thus reducing the work/energy experienced by the part of the car where the passengers are. Does it work because the act of crumpling creates more heat and sound energy than if the front of the car were to stay intact therefore reducing the kinetic energy that acts upon the rest of the car. Any rough explaination as to where the energy actually goes/why the act of crumpling reduces the energy experienced by the passengers would be wholey appreciated. Thanks.