Thermal noise known as “Johnson noise” or “Nyquist noise” is well known and characterized. This noise is a result of thermal agitation of charge carriers inside a conductor. Its power spectral density is given by: v^2=4kTR where kB is Boltzmann's constant in joules per kelvin, T is the resistor's absolute temperature in kelvins, and R is the resistor value in ohms. Imagine a resistor in an adiabatic enclosure (one incapable of heat transfer) connected to a lossless diode. The wires leave the enclosure through sealed ports to power a circuit. Shouldn’t the rectification of this random fluctuation in the voltage across the resistor create a net positive voltage and hence allow us to violate the second law of thermodynamics (creating free energy)? I once asked a physics professor this question and he excitedly gave me a rushed explanation of why this wouldn’t work. It involved Brownian motion and he quickly digressed into a tangent about proving the continuity between classical (Rayleigh Jeans) and quantum blackbody theory. It involved some esoteric thought experiment where he defiled my adiabatic enclosure with a big parabolic dish. I wasn’t impressed. edit: I just realised the parallels between this hypothetical and Maxwell's demon, which seems to be still up for debate.